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Lectures in Finance Maths

Lectures in Finance Maths

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Lecture Noteson theMathematics of Finance
Jerry Alan VeehFebruary 20, 2006
Copyright
©
2006 Jerry Alan Veeh. All rights reserved.
 
§
0. Introduction
The objective of these notes is to present the basic aspects of the mathematicsof finance, concentrating on the part of this theory most closely related to financialproblems connected with life insurance. An understanding of the basic principlesunderlying this part of the subject will form a solid foundation for further study of the theory in other settings.The central theme of these notes is embodied in the question, “What is thevalue today of a sum of money which will be paid at a certain time in the future?”Since the value of a sum of money depends on the point in time at which the fundsare available, a method of comparing the value of sums of money which becomeavailable at different points of time is needed. This methodology is provided by thetheory of interest.Throughout these notes are various exercises and problems. The reader shouldattempt to work all of these. Also included are sample questions of the type likelyto appear on the examination over this material given by the Society of Acturaries.These sample questions should be attempted after the material in the other exercisesand problems has been mastered.A calculator, such as the one allowed on the Society of Actuaries examinations,will be useful in solving the problems here. Proficiency in the use of the calculatorto solve these problems is also an essential part of the preparation for the Society of Actuaries examination.
Copyright
©
2006 Jerry Alan Veeh. All rights reserved.
 
§
1. Elements of the Theory of Interest
A typical part of most insurance contracts is that the insured pays the insurera fixed premium on a periodic (usually annual or semi–annual) basis. Money hastime value, that is, $1 in hand today is more valuable than $1 to be received one yearhence. A careful analysis of insurance problems must take this effect into account.The purpose of this section is to examine the basic aspects of the theory of interest.A thorough understanding of the concepts discussed here is essential.To begin, remember the way in which compound interest works. Suppose anamount
A
is invested at interest rate
i
per year and this interest is compoundedannually. After 1 year, the amount in the account will be
A
+
iA
=
A
(1 +
i
), and thistotal amount will earn interest the second year. Thus, after
n
years the amount willbe
A
(1 +
i
)
n
. The factor (1 +
i
)
n
is sometimes called the
accumulation factor
. If interestiscompoundeddailyafterthesame
n
yearstheamountwillbe
 A
(1+
i
365
)
365
n
.In this last context the interest rate
i
is called the
nominal annual
rate of interest.The
effective annual rate of interest
is the amount of money that one unit investedatthe
beginning
oftheyearwillearnduringtheyear,whentheamountearnedispaidat the
end 
of the year. In the daily compounding example the effective annual rateof interest is (1+
i
365
)
365
1. This is the rate of interest which compounded annuallywould provide the same return. When the time period is not specified, both nominaland effective interest rates are assumed to be annual rates. Also, the terminology‘convertible daily’ is sometimes used instead of ‘compounded daily.This serves asa reminder that at the end of a conversion period (compounding period) the interestthat has just been earned is treated as principal for the subsequent period.
Exercise 1–1.
What is the effective rate of interest corresponding to an interest rateof 5% compounded quarterly?Two different investment schemes with two different nominal annual rates of interest may in fact be
equivalent
, that is, may have equal dollar value at any fixeddate in the future. This possibility is illustrated by means of an example.
Example 1–1.
Suppose I have the opportunity to invest $1 in Bank A which pays5% interest compounded monthly. What interest rate does Bank B have to pay,compounded daily, to provide an equivalent investment? At any time
in years theamount in the two banks is given by
1 +
0
.
0512
12
and
1 +
i
365
365
respectively. Itis now an easy exercise to find the nominal interest rate
i
which makes these twofunctions equal.
Exercise 1–2.
Find the interest rate
i
. What is the effective rate of interest?Situations in which interest is compounded more often than annually will arise
Copyright
©
2006 Jerry Alan Veeh. All rights reserved.

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