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Beginners Introduction to the Assembly Language of ATMEL AVR Microprocessors

Beginners Introduction to the Assembly Language of ATMEL AVR Microprocessors

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Beginners Introduction to the
Assembly Language of
ATMEL\u00adAVR\u00adMicroprocessors
by
Gerhard Schmidt
http://www.avr\u00adasm\u00adtutorial.net
October 2004
Avr-Asm-Tutorial
1
http://www.avr-asm-tutorial.net
Content

Why learning Assembler?..........................................................................................................................1
Short and easy.......................................................................................................................................1
Fast and quick........................................................................................................................................1
Assembler is easy to learn.....................................................................................................................1
AT90Sxxxx are ideal for learning assembler........................................................................................1
Test it!....................................................................................................................................................1
Hardware for AVR\u00adAssembler\u00adProgramming...........................................................................................2
The ISP\u00adInterface of the AVR\u00adprocessor family...................................................................................2
Programmer for the PC\u00adParallel\u00adPort....................................................................................................2
Experimental board with a AT90S2313................................................................................................3
Ready\u00adto\u00aduse commercial programming boards for the AVR\u00adfamily...................................................4
Tools for AVR assembly programing........................................................................................................5
The editor..............................................................................................................................................5
The assembler........................................................................................................................................6
Programming the chips..........................................................................................................................7
Simulation in the studio.........................................................................................................................7
Register......................................................................................................................................................9
What is a register?.................................................................................................................................9
Different registers................................................................................................................................10
Pointer\u00adregister....................................................................................................................................10
Recommendation for the use of registers............................................................................................11
Ports.........................................................................................................................................................12
What is a Port?....................................................................................................................................12
Details of relevant ports in the AVR...................................................................................................13
The status register as the most used port.............................................................................................13
Port details...........................................................................................................................................14
SRAM..................................................................................................................................................15
Using SRAM in AVR assembler language.........................................................................................15
What is SRAM?...................................................................................................................................15
For what purposes can I use SRAM?..................................................................................................15
How to use SRAM?.............................................................................................................................15
Use of SRAM as stack.........................................................................................................................16
Defining SRAM as stack................................................................................................................16
Use of the stack...............................................................................................................................17
Bugs with the stack operation.........................................................................................................17
Jumping and Branching............................................................................................................................19
Controlling sequential execution of the program................................................................................19
What happens during a reset?.........................................................................................................19
Linear program execution and branches..............................................................................................20
Timing during program execution.......................................................................................................20
Macros and program execution...........................................................................................................21
Subroutines..........................................................................................................................................21
Interrupts and program execution........................................................................................................23
Calculations..............................................................................................................................................25
Number systems in assembler.............................................................................................................25
Positive whole numbers (bytes, words, etc.)..................................................................................25
Signed numbers (integers)..............................................................................................................25
Binary Coded Digits, BCD.............................................................................................................25
Packed BCDs..................................................................................................................................26
Numbers in ASCII\u00adformat..............................................................................................................26
Bit manipulations................................................................................................................................26
Shift and rotate....................................................................................................................................27
Adding, subtracting and comparing....................................................................................................28
Format conversion for numbers...........................................................................................................29
Multiplication......................................................................................................................................30
Decimal multiplication...................................................................................................................30
Binary multiplication......................................................................................................................30

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