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Respiratory Conditions Articles

Respiratory Conditions Articles

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Published by S. Bala Dahiya
American Association of Equine Practitioners
American Association of Equine Practitioners

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Published by: S. Bala Dahiya on Jul 20, 2014
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07/20/2014

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Strangles: What to Know
by Written by: Corinne Sweeney, DVM, Dipl. ACVIM
%he (irst reporte case o( strangles in a horse was in the year +-+, an it has continue to worry horse owners since that time. #our )eterinarian has a wealth o( /nowlege about strangles in(ections in horses. %his article will e0pose you to the basic (acts about strangles so you can be a partner with your )eterinarian as you wor/ to treat, control, an pre)ent the isease.What causes this highly contagious isease, an what shoul 1 e0pect to see! Streptococcus e2ui 3commonly /nown as S. e2ui4 bacteria gain access to your horse either through the nose or mouth. %hey then in)ae lymph noes in the hea an throat. What (ollows isa purulent 3pus5li/e4 nasal ischarge an abscess (ormation in the lymph noes. 6ther signs that might e)elop inclue (e)er, loss o( appetite, an listlessness. %he name strangles was coine because a((ecte horses sometimes 3but rarely4 were su((ocate by enlarge lymph noes that bloc/e their airways. %he lymph noe abscesses ma/e the noes swollen an pain(ul. With time, serum might oo7e (rom the o)erlying s/in, as the lymph noe abscesses mature be(ore rupturing to rain their creamy pus. 6ther lymph noes in the hea an throat can be in)ol)e, but they are not apparent as many o( them rain into the nasal ca)ity. $ow is my horse e0pose to strangles! Most horses that e)elop strangles got it (rom the in(ecte nasal ischarges o( a horse with an acti)e case o( strangles or one that has recently reco)ere (rom it. Direct transmission occurs when horses, being )ery social, ha)e nose5to5nose contact. 1nirect transmission occurs when a susceptible horse shares (ee or water buc/ets with an in(ecte horse. 6wners nee to recogni7e that about 89 o( horses continue to she S. e2ui in their nasal secretions (or se)eral wee/s a(ter they ha)e reco)ere. 'iew all reco)ere horses as potential sources o( in(ection (or at least si0 wee/s a(ter the clinical signs o( strangles ha)e resol)e. *n e0tremely small percent 3maybe +5+894 o( horses continue to she S. e2ui in their nasal secretions (or a prolonge perio o( time, anywhere (rom months to years. %hese horses (re2uently ha)e guttural pouch in(ections cause by S. e2ui. What about (iels an barns! S. e2ui isnt a hary organism; it oesnt persist well in the en)ironment. While its possible to contract strangles (rom an in(ecte horses pasture, its )ery unli/ely. $ow will my )eterinarian /now i( my horse has strangles! Most o(ten, your )eterinarian will iagnose strangles base on the classic clinical signs. %o con(irm in(ection, the <gol stanar= is still a bacteriologic culture (rom either nasal swabs or pus (rom the abscesses. *nother test is a polymerase chain reaction 3P"R4 test, which etects the DN* o( S. e2ui. While the test is e0cellent, it oes not istinguish between ea an li)e organisms. What o 1 o i( there is a strangles outbrea/! 6wners are the /ey to success(ully controlling an outbrea/ o( strangles. First, iscuss the situation with your )eterinarian. With his>her help, you can ienti(y a((ecte groups o( horses, loo/at the geography o( the premises, an re)iew management practices. %ogether you will e)elop a
 
practical isease control strategy customi7e (or your particular circumstances. Se)eral speci(ic aims o( the plan will be to: +4 Pre)ent the sprea o( S. e2ui to horses on other premises an to new arri)als on in(ecte premises. %his is one by stopping all mo)ement o( horses on an o(( the a((ecte premises until (urther notice. %hen, horses with strangles an other horses e0pose to them shoul be /ept in well5emarcate <irty= 2uarantine areas. "lustering the cases in groups shoul allow parts o( thepremises to be allocate as <irty= an other parts as <clean.= 4 ?stablish when reco)ere horses are no longer in(ectious. #our )eterinarian will start a program o( culturing nasal swabs o)er se)eral wee/s, an horses that are consistently negati)e will be returne to the <clean= area. @4 1n)estigate long5term carriers. 1( a horse shes S. e2ui longer than e0pecte, your )eterinarian will recommen an enoscopic e0amination o( the guttural pouches an treatment, i( neee. A4 Pre)ent in(ection spreaing (rom the <irty= areas to the <clean= areas o( the premise. 1eally, separate groups o( (arm wor/ers will eal with the two groups o( horses. 1( this is not possible, thehorses in the clean area shoul be attene to be(ore wor/ing with the horses in the irty area. #our )eterinarian will also be able to escribe methos o( isin(ecting (acilities. 1n conclusion, the /ey to a success(ul control (or strangles is e)eloping a plan with your )eterinarian, ahering to that plan, an not panic/ing.
/eywors: strangles. poste: B>B>88-. Cast upate: B>B>88-.
Respiratory roble!s
by "y #ancy S. $o%ing, DVM
 
?2uine in(luen7a or other respiratory )iruses 3rhinopneumonitis, rhino )irus4 or bacteria canstri/e a horse regarless o( the time o( year. $orses that atten e)ents where other horses are congregate or horses that li)e in large boaring barns are particularly at ris/. Not all horses that contract a )iral in(ection will isplay o)ert clinical signs, but such a horse may then be a carrier capable o( in(ecting less immune5competent ini)iuals. 1n this way, a horse thathas ne)er e)en le(t the property coul become in(ecte. 1t coul be a young or an ol horse less capable o( (ighting o(( in(ections.  *ny respiratory in(lammation incurre sets up the potential (or that horse to e)elop chronic obstructi)e pulmonary isease 3"6PD4, also /nown as hea)es. Moly hay is one means o( starting this chronic isease, but amage (rom respiratory )iruses is another common inciting cause o( this airway isability. 1n general, pre)ention is the /ey to goo airway health, but e)en in the best o( circumstances, horses o e)elop respiratory in(ections. $ow o you iscern i( your horse has e)elope a respiratory problem! Symptoms

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