the packet is to be forwarded to. A path can also be specified for which the packetto take, and allows for a switch or router to use the MPLS label for the forwardingdecisions, without having to scan the entire packet header, a process which will addoverhead time to the network traversal . When routers or switches receive thepackets as they traverse through the network, the packets are forwarded out onlabel switch paths, or LSP’s, as based on their labels. The specific path or LSP toforward the packet on if originally assigned when it initially enters the network andis based on the destination of the packets. This allows for different paths to betaken based on the label, thus giving the ability to do traffic engineering simply onthe MPLS labels .Contrary to the previous way of routing, in which routers would scan a packet’sheader and discover the source, destination, and path, MPLS also allows forswitches and routers along the way to change the stack, so that they are able toadd a different path if the default one is broken or unavailable. This allows for amore dynamic and autonomous network to be formed, with less intervention fromapplications or human factors, not to mention the cut down on the loss of packets if an invalid path is specified. When the router examines the packets, it reads the topmost element from the stack, taking the information from it which it needs to routethe packet and forwards it accordingly. If the packet has no top most element,there is the assumption that the packet belongs to the switch, router or network towhich it has come into contact with . If the top most label is invalid or notproperly formed, the label is discarded as to not cause any more confusion, unlessit is determine by the switch or router to not cause any harm by forward the packetwithout a label, in which case the switch or router will forward it as needed .