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Torque & Equilibrium Conditions

Torque & Equilibrium Conditions

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Published by John Dale Ibale
it shows the different conditions of torque and equilibrium
it shows the different conditions of torque and equilibrium

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: John Dale Ibale on Jul 21, 2014
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 Physics 1111
 
Torque & Equilibrium conditions 
 Page
 of
13
Written by Behnam R. Aryafar GPC-Newton Campus
Torque & Equilibrium conditions
OBJECTIVE
To verify the rotational and translational conditions for equilibrium. To determine the center of gravity of a rigid body (meter stick). To apply the torque concept to the determination of an unknown mass.
INTRODUCTION
When an unbalanced force acts on a body, the body has the tendency to rotate (about some axis), translate, or both. For a body to be in equilibrium, it must have both rotational equilibrium (sum of all the torques is equal to zero) and translational equilibrium (sum of all linear forces is equal to zero). The total equilibrium condition is called static equilibrium. In this laboratory, a meter stick will serve as a rigid body to which forces (masses under the influence of gravity) act. From these applied forces and the torque, the concept of center of gravity and center of mass will be investigated.
Equipment Needed
1) (1) meter stick 2) (1) meter stick support stand 3) (1) Triple-beam balance 4) (4) Small mass hangers
 
 Physics 1111
 
Torque & Equilibrium conditions 
 Page
 of
13
Written by Behnam R. Aryafar GPC-Newton Campus
5) (1) knife edge clamp without hanger loop 6) (1) hooked mass set, and 7) (1) unknown mass with hook.
THEORY
Definition of Static Equilibrium :
An object is in
a complete static equilibrium 
 . If and only if 1) It is not translating (not moving up, down, left, or right) AND 2) It is not rotating about any axis in any direction.
Both conditions MUST be met in order for the object to be in a complete static equilibrium.
If a stationary mass is acted on by several forces F
1
,F
2
,F
3
…, then in order to NOT translate, the net force must  be zero.

 =

 = Ʃ 

 =
 +
 +
 += 0
 

 +

 +

 += 0
 

 +

 +

 += 0
 

 +

 +

 += 0
 
Ʃ 
= Ʃ
 = 0
Equilibrium is possible, but not guaranteed.
Even though the net force is zero, the object might not be in static equilibrium. Here is a case (two forces acting on a bar) where the net force is zero, but the forces cause the object to
spin: 
 
In order to guarantee static equilibrium, we must have 1) Net force = 0 AND 2) Net torque = 0
 
 Physics 1111
 
Torque & Equilibrium conditions 
 Page
 of
13
Written by Behnam R. Aryafar GPC-Newton Campus
Remember what torque is: Torque (pronounced "tork") is a kind of "rotational force". Magnitude of torque:
|| = .
 Where unit of torque = N. m r = "lever arm" = distance from axis of rotation to point of application of force F
 = component of force perpendicular to lever arm vector Example: Wheel on a fixed axis:  Notice that only the perpendicular component of the force will rotate the wheel. The component of the force  parallel to the lever arm (F||) has no effect on the rotation of the wheel. Example: Pull on a door handle a distance r = 0.8 m from the hinge with a force of magnitude F = 20 N at an angle
Ɵ
=30 degrees from the plane of the door, like so:
|| = .
 = r. F sin(
Ɵ
) = (0.80 m)(20 N)(sin(30)) = 8.0 N.m Torque has a sign (+ or -):
Ʃ

 = 0
 
An Object in rotational equilibrium only when the net torques
about any axis
is zero (when the negative torques cancel the positive torques). Later on,we will
 prove
this. If you want to easily rotate an object about an axis, you want a large lever arm r and a large perpendicular force F
: Positive torque causes counter-clockwise CCW rotation.  Negative torque causes clockwise (CW) rotation.

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