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SDH.NG.quick.ref

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gige Ethernet test gige Ethernet testing gige Ethernet installation gige Ethernet maintenance gige Ethernet commissioning, gige Ethernet troubleshooting,
T
r
end
Comm
u
nicat
io
ns
Gigabit Ethernet tester, Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit Ethernet maintenance, Gigabit Ethernet commissioning, Gigabit Ethernet troubleshooting,
Gigabit Ethernet protocols, 1000BASE-T tester, 1000BASE-LX test, 1000BASE-SX test, 1000BASE-T testing, 1000BASE-LX testing, 1000BASE-SX testing,
Gigabit Ethernet protocols, 1000BASE-T tester, 1000BASE-LX test, 1000BASE-SX test, 1000BASE-T testing 1000BASE-LX testing 1000BASE-SX testing
TV
VoIP
VPN
3G
Internet
Telepho
SAN
Circuit
xDSL
Mobile
VPLS
FRL
VoD
ISDN
TV
Fibre Channel
ESCON
LCAS
VoIP
VPN
3G
Internet
GFP-F
SDH/Sonet NG
PDH
Telepho
WDM - Dark Fiber - Coax - Wireless - OTN
VLAN
Contiguous Concatenation
Virtual Concatenation
MPLS
10/100/1000 Ethernet
Figure 1
Versatile, flexible and efficient Next Generation SDHFICON
DVB
GFP-T
SAN
Circuit
ATM
HDLC/PPP/LAPS
Mobile
VPLS
FRL
VoD
ISDN
IP
IP
SDH
LCAS
VCAT
Virtual Container Transport
Bandwidth management
Paths, Sections
GFC
Mapping in Frames
Layers
SDH
SDH
SDH
LCAS
VCAT
GFC
Paths, Sections

Ethernet VPN DVB SAN

PDH
Ethernet
VPN
DVB
SAN
PDH
MSSP
MSSP
SDH NG
Existing SDH/Sonet
SDH NG
Clients
Clients
Figure 2

Next Generation SDH enables operators to provide more data transport services while
increasing the efficiency of installed SDH/SONET base, by adding just the new MSSP edge
nodes. Therefore, it will not be necessary to install an overlap network or migrating all the
nodes or fiber optics. This reduces the cost per bit delivered, and will attract new customers
while keeping legacy services.

SDH NG
SDH NG
Trend\u2019s Next Generation SDH
Pocket Guide

High-performance tool for
testing Next Generation SDH/
SONET.

All the features needed to
speed up the installation and
maintenance of new data-aware
SDH networks in a compact,
user-friendly battery operated
tester.
This new test module
enables you to test Ethernet
over metropolitan SDH/SONET

networks that use Higher
and Lower-Order Virtual
Concatenation, LCAS and GFP.

SDH Next Generation testing, SDH NG tester, SDH NG testing, SDH NG installation, SDH NG maintenance, SDH NG commissioning, SDH NG troubleshooting, SDH NG test,
GFP testing, GFP tester, GFP testing, GFP installation, GFP maintenance, GFP protocols, GFP mapping, GFP-F testing, GFP-F tester, GFP-F testing, GFP-F mapping,
Virtual Concatenation testing, Virtual Concatenation tester, VCAT testing, VCAT installation, VCAT troubleshooting, VCAT test, Virtual Concatenation test,
LCAS testing, LCAS tester, LCAS testing, LCAS installation, LCAS maintenance, LCAS protocols, GFP-T testing, GFP-T tester, GFP-T testing
VictoriaCombo NG 2.5G
Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit Ethernet maintenance, Gigabit Ethernet commissioning, Gigabit Ethernet troubleshooting,
Gigabit Ethernet protocols, Gigabit Ethernet Alarms, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet tester
T
r
e
ndCommunic
a
ti
ons
.
.
.
.
.
.
Ethernet
SDH/Sonet
Ethernet
H2
H1
H3
4
H2
H1
H3
1
GFP
GFP
Source
Sink
STM frames
Channel ID
H2
H1
H3
3
Submultiplexing
STM-n/OC-m
Encapsulation
T r a n s m i s s i o n
Mapping
Multiplexing
Demultiplexing
DemappingDecapsulation
.
.
.
Tx
Port 1
Port 2
Port n
.
.
.
Rx
Packets
Port 1
Port 2
Port n
MSPP
queues
demapper
MSPPmapper
Queues
Figure 3

Data packet aggregation using GFP. Packets are in queues, waiting to be mapped onto a TDM chan- nel. At the far end, packets are dropped again to a queue and delivered. GFP frame multiplexing and sub multiplexing. The figure shows the encapsulation mechanism and the transport of the GFP frames into VC containers embedded in the STM frames.

13579+1
+n+4
PTI
byte
PFI
EXI type
UPI
PLI
cHEC (CRC-16)

tHEC (CRC-16)
EXI
eHEC (CRC-16)

pFCS (CRC-32)
Payload
+n
66
Core Header
Payload Header
Extention Header
(optional)
Payload
Check Sum
(optional)
GFP frame
PLI: PDU Length Indicator
cHEC: Core HEC protection
PTI: Payload type Identifier
000: client data
100: client management
PFI: Payload FCS Indicator
1: presence of FCS
0: absence
EXI type: Extension Header Identifier

0000: Null
0001: Linear
0010: Ring

UPI: User Payload Identifier (PTI=0)
Payload: Space for the framed PDU
pFCS: Payload FCS
2468+2

01x: Ethernet (GFP-F)
02x: PPP (GFP-F)
03x: Fiber Channel (GFP-T)
04x: FICON (GFP-T)
05x: ESCON (GFP-T)
06x: Gigabit Ethernet (GFP-T)
08x: MAPOS (GFP-F)
09x: DVB (GFP-T)
0Ax: RPR (GFP-F)

0Cx: Async Fiber Channel (GFP-T)
scrambledby
tes(optiona
l)
0Bx: Fiber Channel (GFP-F)
eHEC: Extension HEC protection
EXI: Extension Header Identifier
4bytes
4bytes
0-60bytes
nbytes
0-4
bytes
tHEC: Type HEC protection
Figure 4
GFP frame formats and protocols
CID
Spare
LinearEXIty
pe
NullEXI
tHEC: Type HEC protection
CID: Channel ID for submultiplexing
tHEC
Type
Type
tHEC
eHEC
Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet testing, Gigabit Ethernet installation, Gigabit Ethernet maintenance, Gigabit Ethernet commissioning, Gigabit Ethernet troubleshooting,
Gigabit Ethernet protocols, Gigabit Ethernet Alarms, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet test, Gigabit Ethernet tester
T
r
e
ndCommunic
a
ti
ons
STM-1
STM-64
STM-16
STM-4
STM-256
OC-768
OC-192
OC-48
OC-12
OC-3/STS-3
STM-0
OC-1/STS-1
TUG-3
x3
x4
x7
x7
TUG-2
x3
x3
Mapping
Multiplexing
Aligning
Pointer processing
SDH Container
Group
VC-4
VC-3
VC4-4c
VC4-16c
AU-4
AU4-4c
AU4-16c
STS-3c SPE
STS-1 SPE
VT-Group
VC4-64c
VC4-256c
AU4-64c
AU4-256c
AU-3
AUG-256
STS-12c SPE
STS-48c SPE
STS-192c SPE
STS-768c SPE
STS-3c
STS-1
STS-12c
STS-48c
STS-192c
STS-768c
STS-768
AUG-64
STS-192
AUG-16
STS-48
AUG-4
STS-12
AUG-1
STS-3
x4
x4
x4
x4
10 Gbps
2.5 Gbps
622 Mbps
155 Mbps
52 Mbps
Frame transmission
Figure 5
SDH and Sonet multiplexing map
VC-3
VC-2
VC-12
VC-11
VT-6 SPE
VT-2 SPE
VT-1.5 SPE
POH addition
x1
x1
x1
x1
x1
x1
x1
x1
x1
x1
x1
x1
C-3
C-2
C-12
C-11
C-4-256c

C-4-64c
C-4-16c
C-4-4c

C-4
TU-3
TU-2
TU-12
TU-11
VT-6
VT-2
VT-1.5
x1
ClientData,
suchasPDH,E
thernet,SAN
,DVB,IP,HDL
C,etc.
40 Gbps
REI (Remote Error Indication) BIP-8 violation count
RDI
G1:
RDI (Remote Defect Indication) is sent back
00: unequipped

01: reserved
02: TUG
03: locked TU
04: E3, T3

14: DQDB
15: FDDI

xx11xx00: pointer to V1 xx11xx01: pointer to V2 xx11xx10: pointer to V3 xx11xx11: pointer to V4

Nine bytes Path Overhead (POH)

Path trace, message with CRC
BIP-8 parity control
Signal label (mapping)
Path status
Path user channel (voice or data)
Position and sequence indicator
Path user channel (voice or data)
Automatic Protection Switching
Tandem Connection Monitoring

G1
F2
H4

J1
B3
C2

F3 Z3 Z4

16: HDLC/PPP
18: HDLS/LAPS
1A: 10GEthernet
FE: Test Signal
Spare
E-RDI
IEC Incoming Error Count, BIP-8 errors in Tandem Conn.
IEC
TC
N1:
REIOEITC-API, TC-RDI
ODI, reserved
E-RDI (Enhanced RDI information)

TC-REI: Remote Error Indication in a TC subnetwork
OEI: Outgoing Error Indication
Multiframe: TC-API (Access Point Identifier)

multiframe
17: SDL
(RDI=0) 10: Payload defect (PLM)
(RDI=1) 01: Server defect (AIS, LOP),
(RDI=1) 10: Connectivity defect (TIM, UNEQ)
LO Multiframe Sequence
ODI (Outgoing Defect Indication)

VC-3/4-Xv sequence
bit 5-8: MFI1 multiframe indicator (0 to 15)
frame 0 bit 1-4 MFI2 MSB Multiframe Indicator 2
frame 1 bit 1-4 MFI2 LSB
frame 14 bit 1-4 SQ MSB sequence indicator
frame 15 bit 1-4 SQ LSB sequence indicator

12: E4
13: ATM
H4:
C2:
APS: Automatic Protection Switching
K3:
HODL: Higher-Order Data Link
x
x
1
1
H4:
Multiframe Indicator 1
MFI2 (frames 0 and 1)
SQ (frames 14 and 15)
TC-RDI (RDI in Tandem Connection)

G1
F2
H4

J1
B3
C2

F3
K3
N1

SDH
Sonet
APS
Spare
HODL
Figure 6
Nine bytes Path Overhead is attached to VC3, VC4 and VC4-Xc.
REI
LO Seq
x
x

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