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An Intelligent Voltage Controller for Static VAR Compensators

An Intelligent Voltage Controller for Static VAR Compensators

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A n I n te llig e n t V o lta g e C o n tr o lle r fo r S ta tic V A R
C om pensators
A .M .S h a r a f
L .A .S n id e r
U n iv e rs ity o f N e w
B runsw ick
N a n y a n g T e c h n o lo g ic a l U n iv e rs ity
C anada
A b stract
The paper presetrrs a novel AI-rule based itrtelligeirt
conrrollerfo r fired

c a p a c ito r -th y r is to r c o n tr o lle d r e a c to r (F C -T C R )static V A R C om pensator (S V C ). T h e brrelligenr rolrage regulator is based

o n th e c o n c e p t o f th ee r r o r
escrrrsiorr plarie w here the stubilizing actiow is scaled by
th e
m a g n i t u d e o f t h e e x c u r s i o n v o l t a g e e r r o r I ' e c t o r , ir r
order to etuure
a d e q u a te c o m p e n s a tio n .

The proposed r id e b a s e d v o lta g e r e g u la to r is v a lid a te d u s in g A T P IE M T P a n d

i s
com pared
w ith
a n
o p tim iz e d
c o n \* e n tio n a l
p r o p o r r io n a l
p lu s
itite g t-a 1
v o lta g e
c o n tr o lle r .
T h e

proposed rule based desigti is robust and tolerares system param eter rariatiorrs as well as nwdellirig inaccrrracirs. s in c c th e c o n tr o l l e w l is o n ly s c a le d b y th e lo c a tio no f th e Ldrage e.\-cursioti error w ctor in the(e ,-? ,,)e r r o r p la n e .

T h eschenre is ralidaredfo r fw o large system conringencies
e o n r p r is itig lo a d r e je c tio tr a n d a th r e e p h a s e s h o r t c ir c r tir
fu rtlt follow edb y loss of
U
transm ission line.
1 .I n t r o d u c t i o n
E le c tric a l p o w e r s y s te m sa re c o m p le x in te rc o n n e c te d .
h ig h ly n o n lin e a r n e tw o rk s w ith
ever vxying
c o n d itio n s
c a u s in g
v o h g e
flu c tu a tio n s .
v ru ia tio n s in
a c tiv e
a n d
r e a c t i v e p o w e r g e n e r a t i o n . 'a n d p o w e r f l o w o n t r " m i s s i o n
lin e s .
Reactive pow er changes produced by
lo a d
v iu ia tio n s
;tn d
line sw itching can cause adverse effects on
s y s te m
v o lta g e s ta b ility a n d th e in re rc o n n w te d s y s te m
s e c u rity .
S t;itic v ;u c i q " t o r s
(S V C 's)a reu tiliz e dt o e n h a n c e tlie
in te g ~ ite dA C
s y s te m
v o lta g e s m b ility .
S V C 's[1 -9 1c 'a n
b ec l a s s i ! i e d
into four categ:gories:
1 .
3 .
3 .
th y ris to r s w itc h e d c a p iic ito r b a n k s (T S C ).
th y ris to r c o n tro lle d re a c to rb a n k s (T C R ).
c o m b in a tio n s o f( I ) a n d(2 ) w irli th e s w itc h e d o r
fix e d c a p a c ito r. th y ris to r c o n lro lle r re a c to r;IS
tlie
m ostc o s t e ffe c tiv e s o lu tio nt o v o lta g e in s ta b ility
a n d
re a c tiv e c o m p e n s a tio n
o f
h ig h
v o lta g e
;m i
0 -8 1 8 6 -5 3 2 0 -5 /9 4 $ 0 3 .0 00 1 9 9 4 IE E E
S in g a p o re
e x tra h ig h v o lta g e tra n s m is s io n n e tw o rk s .
n e w e m e rg in g s m i c c o n v e rte r to p o lo g ie s : fle x ib le
A C
transm ission
system s
)F A C T S )
b a s e d
o n

c u rre n t in je c tio n (C S I) o r v o lta g e in je c tio n(V C I) lin e c o m m itte d v o lta g es o u r c eo r c u rre n t s o u rc e inverter interface schem es.

T he effectiveness of static var com pensators [9- 1 3i s
d e te rm in e d
la rg e ly
b y
th e
c o n tro l
s tra te g y ,
s y s te m
in te ra c tio n s a n d
c o n tin g e n c ie s :
fa u lt
ty p e s ,
lo c a tio n .
d u ra tio n
a n d
p ro te c tiv e
o r
re s to ra tiv e
a c tio n s
o n
th e
n e tw o rk .

SV C 's are utilizedi nm u ltitu d e s o f a p p lic a tio n s in c lu d in s v o lta g e s ta b ility , re a c tiv e c o m p e n s a tio n p o w e r factor correction, steady state pow er flow enh,m cem ent on w e,A

.4 C
tr'ansm ission
lin e s .
s te a d y
s ta te
d y n a m ic
s y n c h ro n o u s
f i s t
sw in g
s ta b ility . c a p a c ity
re le a s e
o n
o v e rlo a d e d tie
l i n e s 'a n d
s u p p le in e n m y
u se
i n
d a m p in g
s t e m
tu rb in e to rs io n a l s u b -s y n c h ro n o u s o s c illa tio n siw d
s h a ft v ib ra tio n s .
T h e p .? p e r p r e s e n t s a n o v e l r u l e b a s e d z o n a l a c t i o n .p in
a d ju s ta b le . e rro r d riv e n
v o lta g e s ta b iliz e r.

T h e c o n tro l a c tio n[1 7-181 is scaled by the length of the voltage error e x c u rs io n s in th e v o lta g e e rro r p h a se p o rtra it.

4 .
2 . S a m p le stu d y sy stem
F ig u re
1
d e p ic ts
a
sam ple
E H V
-
S O 0
kV
in te r-
c o n n e c te d A C s v s te m o f tw o A C" m
w ith d o u b le c irc u it
4 0 0
K m .
500
k V
tr'm m issio n
lin e s .
T he
s t a t i c
v x
c o m p e n s i1 to r
is
a
fix e d
c a p a c ito r.
th y ris to r
c o n tro lle d
re a c to r ty p e w itha ra tin go f+ S O 0 M V A R .T he p a ra m e te n
a r eg iv e ni n th e A p p e n d ix .
T h e A T P /E M T P e le c tro m a g n e tic tra n s ie n t s irn u h iio n
re y u la to r s tru c tu re :, in
com parison
t o
th e
c o n v e n rio n d
p ro p o rtio n a l p lu s in te g ra l c o n tro lle r. o p e ra tin g o n
;I
3 -p h iS e
6 -p u lseth y ris to r c o n tro lle d re:icto rb a n k . T h e c o n v e n tio n ;J
c o n tro lle r is d e p ic te di nF ig u re2 .
S
O
~
~
W
X
~
ws
usedt o vdidilte the
W \V
d e -b :ls e d
\.o lt;ip r t
3 .Z o n a l a c tio n r u le b a se d v o lta g e s ta b iliz e r
239
The A I-rule-based zonal action stabilizer is based on
th e c o n c e p t o f o n -lin e
g a in
s c h e d u lin g a n d

a d ju s tm e n t b a s e d o n th e le n g th o f th e v o lta g e e rro r e x c u rs io n v e c to r. F i g u r e s 3 a 'a n d

3 b d e p ic tth ed e ta ile d b lo c k d ia g ra m
'a n d
c o n tro lle r
g a in
s c h e d u lin g
a c tio n
u s in g
th e

o n -lin e m easurem ent o f the length of th ee x c u r s io n v e c to r inth e ( e ,- e ,)

z o n a l
p h a s e
p o rtra it.
T he
fu ll
s y s te m
a n d
c o n tro lle rs w e re m o d e le d u sin g A T P E M T P
w ith
;I
tim e
T h e c o n tro l e q u a tio n s a re s u m m a riz e d; i s fo llo w s :
step of1 0 01 1 s.
"fb
&
=
/=
-
p u
(3 )
w h e r e\u20ac &i s a s m a l l d a i d z o n et o a v o i d c o n t r o l h u n t i n g 'a n d
in s ta b ility . A t a n y s a m p lin g tim e in s ta n tk :
A a@ )
=K ,
& (k )re"(k )+ Y e,Q l
(4 )
w here
IC,,ya r eth e s e le c te d m o d u la tio n c o n s tm ts , w h ic h
c rtnb e optim ized using,an off-line error based perform ance
in d e xJ,
d e fin e d a s fo llo \v s :
N
w hereN = -T-
< an dT-
is selected in the range
(2 -3 )o f
s u p p ly
frequency cycles.
a ,.a ,.'a n d
a 3 a re
re la tiv e w e ig h tin g s .
T o
in c lu d e c u rre n t lim itin g a c tio n ,
e q u a tio n(4 )a b o v e c'an
b e m o d ifie dt o
in c lu d e a c u rre n t
d e p e n d e n t g a inK ,,so :
T szm ple
Aatk )= I(O -q R ,Q re"O
+ Y e"Q I
(6 )
w h e reK , is th e c u rre n t lim ite r g a in c a lc u la te di i t e a c h tim e
step using n n s current m easurem ents.
(7 )
I = o
I nth e A T P E M T P s im u la tio n re s u lts s h o w ni n th e p a p e r.
the current lim iting nction
was not required due
t o
th e
large size (FC +T C R )SV C used(+ S O 0

M V A R ). T h efin a l firin g a n g le c o n tro l a c tio n re s e m b le sa p ro p o rtio n a l p lu s iii~ e g m lr e g u la tio n w ith firin g deliiy an g lea .(90\u00b0< a<1 x 0 ') d e fin e d; i s fo llo w s :

(8 )
a& )
=
a& -1)
+
A a& )
4 .S a m p le d ig ita l s im u la tio n re s u lts
The sam ple study system
sh o w ni n F ig u re
1w ith the
fix e dc a p a c ito r a n d th y ris to r c o n tro lle d re a c to r S V C sy ste m
w as
sim ulated
u s in g
A TPEM TP.
B o th
c o n v e n tio n a l
p ro p o rtio n a l p lu s in te g ra l (P I), a n d ru le b a se d e rro r d riv e n
c o n tro lle rs
w ere
s tu d ie d
a n d
com pared
fo r
tw o
la rg e
system contingencies, nam ely
L o a d re je c tio n o f a p p ro x im a te ly1 0 0 0 M V A a t th e
re c e iv in g
e n d
b u s.
T h is
w as
e ffe c te d
b y
d is c o n n e c tio n
o f
th e
5 0 0
M VA
c o n s t'm t
im pedance load and an increase in the receii-inp
end system im pedance.

Tem porary three phase short circuit fault for6 cycles w hich w as cleared by rem oving the f:iulred line, nearth e SV Cb u s .

F ig u re
4 ,
S
d e p ic t
th e
c o n tro lle r's
d y n a m ic
perform ance for the case of tem porary three phase short
c irc u it fa u lt n e a r th e S V C b u s a t th e lin e s id e .
1 .
2 .
5 .C o n c lu s io n s
T he
p a p e r
p re s e n ts
a
n o v e l
A I-ru le
b 'w e c i
v o ltn p e
c o n tro lle r d e s ig n
for static var com pensitors.

T his rule b a s e d c o n tro lle r u tiliz e d th e v o lta g e e rro r. v o lta g e e rro rrx c f a n d th e e x c u r s io n v e c to r m a g n itu d e to a d ju s t th e c o n tro l le v e l. T h is o n -lin e g a in s c h e d u lin g fe a tu re ,'a n dth eu s?o f th e

c o n c e p t
o f
z o n a l
a c tio n
e n h a n c e
th e
c o n tro lltr
ro b u s tn e s s
in
term s
o f
to le ra tin g
different fault
tjp s.
l o c a t i o n . d u r a t i o n , s y s t e m 'a n d c o n t r o l i n t e r a c t i o n sa s
e ll
a s u n c e rta in tie s in
th e m o d e llin g .
T h e
c o n tro l le v e li s
tailored at anytim e by
th e
le v e l o f th e
excursion error
" n f e s t e d
i n the excursion vector (R ,). T he control acrion
is b o th
fa s t
'a n d
self adjusting. hence
p ro v id e s
fo r
;in
in te llig e n t, s im p le , ro b u s t a n d e a s y
t oi m p l e m e n t v o 1 r:i~ c f
re g u la to r
stru c tu re .
T he
n e w
A I
ru le -b a s e d
v o lrii9 2
re g u la to r
w as
v a lid a te d
u s in g
A TPEM TP
a n d
ir r
e ffe c tiv e n e s s w a s c o m p a re d w itha c o n v e n tio n a l o p tim iz z d
P I c o n tro lle r.
1h e
s a n e
error based
e x c u rs io n
p la n c
a id
c o n tro l
s t r u c t u r e c o n c e p t c 'a n
b e e x te n d e d to o th e r S V C c o n rr\d
ta s k s ,s u c h a s re a c tiv e p o w e r c o m p e n s a tio n . p o w e r fiiito r
c o rre c tio n ,
f ir s t
sw in g
tr a n s ie n t s k ? h ility
d a m p in g
:m i
s te a d y s ta te tie lin e p o w e rflo w e n h a n c e m e n t.
I t
W ;L <
a ls o
v a lid a te d fo r s p e e d a n d to rq u e re s u liitiilrio f m otor h i\z s .
6 .A p p e n d ix-S y s te m
P aram eters
S y s te m
1-scndinp end:
2 0G V A
fault level
v o lt;i~ z :1 .0 2 P U .0d e g re e s
trx n sfo rm c'r:
3 0 0 0 h lV A .1 0 5.Q =1 0 0
x ,J x ,=0 .3
2 4 0
System 2- receiving end:
4 0G V Afa u lt le v e l
v o lta g e :
1 .0 0P U ,-35 degrees
tran sfo rm er:
2 0 0 0M VA, IO % , Q = l0 0
x d X l
=0 .3
Transm ission lines:
le n g th :
2 0 0k m
r l= 0 .0 2 4 8 R /k m .1 ,= 0 .8 7 4 6 m H /k m , c ,= 0 .0 1 3 2 6 p f/k m
r ,,=0 .2 0 2 6 f2 /k m , 1 ,= 3 .2 9 1 m H /k m , c,= 0 .0 0 0 8 4 6 p S /k m
R e c e iv in g e n d s h u n t lo a d :
I
F
:
constant im pedance
s iz e
5 0 0M VA. 0 .8 P F
s v c :
tY W
F C D C R
in d u c tiv eA
=
1 0 0M VAR
c a p a c i t i v e Q =5 0 0M VAR, s e r i e s c o n n e c t e dw ithR 'a n d
tran sfo rm er:
5 0 0
M V A .5% . Q = l0 0
Ltofo rm
5 th h " n o n i c
f i l t e r
P Ic o n tro lle r
K ,=0 .8 1 7 .K ,=
1 .0 . ~ = 0 .0 5 .I$ = O .0 0 1 .
K ,=0 .2
Rule based controller
K ,=0 .8 1 7 .K ,=
1 .0 .~ = C ).0 5 .
'~ 0 .0 0 1 ,t l=0 .0 0 2
k,,=
1 7 .0 .R ,=0 .0 0 5
7 . A cknow ledgem ents
T he
a u th o rs
a c k n o w le d g e
th e
su p p o rt
o f
N 'm y a n g
T e c h n o lo g ic a l U n iv e rs ity . S in g a p o re a n dT he U n iv e rs ity o f
N ew
B runsw ick.C a n a h .
8. R eferences
1 .
K .Engtvrg andS . Torsent "Reactors and capacitors controller
h y
th y ris to rs
fo r
o p tim u m
pow er
s y s te m
V A R
c o n tro l" ,
P ro c e e d in g s :
E P R IE L -1 0 1 7 S R W S -7 8 -1 0 8 S p e c ia l R e p o rt 1 9 7 9
o n Transm ission Static V A R
System s Sem inar. pp. 1-17.
2 .
R. Hauth and R. M o m . "The b sics of applyins static var
system s on
H V D C
pow er networks". Proceedings:

E P R IE L - 1047SR W S-78-108 Special R eport 1979 on T ransm ission Static V A R

System s Seininar. pp. 5-1p p 5-32.
3 .
R .L . H a u th . S .A . h lis k e .
Jr. and
F. N izaru. "The role and
b e n e fitso f s ta tic v a r s y s te m si n h ig h v o lta g e p o a .e r s y s te m s
a p p lic a tio n s " ,
IE E E
T ra n s a c tio n s
o n
Pow er
A p p a ra tu s
a n d
System s, V ol. PA S-101, N o.1 0 ,Oct. 1982,p p . 3761-3769.
4 .
R . H a u th ,R . M o ra n , " In tro d u c tio n to s ta tic v a r s y s te m sfo r

v o lta g e a n d v a r c o n tro l, IE E E T u to ria l te x t 7 8 E H 0 1 3 5 4 ) W R . IE E E S u m m e r P A S M e e tin g , L o s A n g le s , C A , J u ly 1 9 7 8 .p p .4 5 - 4 8 .

5 .

C .H . T itu s , J.L . F in k , D .M . D e m a re s t. F .H . R y d e r. " T h e in flu e n c e o f th e E e l R iv e r H V D C c o n v e rs io n fa c ility p e rfo rm a n c e o n

th e
d e s ig n
o f
fu tu re
H V D C
te rm in a ls " . P a p e r N o .
1 4 -0 6 ,
C IG R E
In te m a tio n a l
C onference
o n
L a rg e
H ig h
V o lta g e
E lectrical System s, Paris, France, A ug. 21-29, 1974..
6 .
F .J .
E lle rt,
R. M oran,
"H V D C
a n d
s t a t i c
v a r

c o n tro l a p p lic a tio n so f th y ris to rs " , IE E E /IA S In te rn a tio n a l S e m ic o n d u c to r Pow er C onverter C onference, Lake R uena V ista, Florida. M arch 27031, 1977.

7 .
R .
H a u th .
R .
M oran.
"T he
perform ance
o f
th y ris to r-
c o n tro lle r
s t a t i c
v a r
system s
i n
H V X C
a p p lic a tio n s
-
P a rt
1 :
F u n d a m e n ta l
re la tio n s h ip s " .
IE E E
T u to ria l
T e x t
7 8 E H 1 3 .5 4 -
P W R ,p p . 5 6 - 6 1 . I E E E S u m m e r P A S M e e t i n g , L o s A n g l e s . C .A .
J u ly 1 9 7 8 .
8 .

K .R e ic h e rt, e t a l, " C o n tro lla b le re a c to r c o m p e n s a to rfo r m o r e e x te n s iv e u tiliz a tio no f h ig h v o lta g e tra n s m is s io n s y s te m s . Paper 31-04, C IG R E C onference, Paris. France, A ug., 1974.

9 .
H. Becker. eta l.
"Three phase shunt reactors
fo r
lo n g
d is ta n c e b u lk p o w e r lin e s " . E le c tric R e v ie w . 1 9 6 9 ,p p . 9 4 0 -9 4 .3 .
1 0 .
E . F rie d la n d e r. e ta l. " S a tu ra te d re a c to rsfo r lo n g d is ta n c e
h u lk p o w e r lin e s " , E le c tric R e v ie w . 1 9 6 9 .p p . 9 4 0 -9 4 3 .
1 1 .

H . S c h e \v e ic h a rt. e t a .. " C lo s e dlo o pc o n tro l o f s ta ticv a r s o u rc e s(SV S) on EHV transm ission lines.IEEE paper A 78135-6. IE E E /P A S

1 9 7 9 W in te r P o w e r M e e tin g . N e w
Y ork. N ew
Y o rk .
F e b .1 9 7 8 .
1 7 .
Y . B a g h z o u z . M .D .C os,"O ptinid shunt com pensation to r
u n b a la n c e d
lin e a r
b a d s
\v ith
n o n s in u s o id a l
s u p p ly
\'o lta g e " .
E le c tric M a c h in e s a n d P o w e r S y s te m s . 1 9 9 1 .p p .1 7 1 -1 8 3 .
1 3 .

G .G u e th . P . E n s te d t.. 4 . R e y . R .W . h le n z ie s , " In d iv id u a l phase control ofas ta tic c o m p e n s a to r fo r lo a d c o m p e n s a tio na n d v o lta g e

h a la n c in p
a n d
re g u la tio n " .
IE E E
T ra n s .
o n
P o \v e r
System s. 1987. pp. 898-904.
1 4 .
L .
G y u g y i.
R ..4 .
0 tto .T .H .
P u tm a n .
" P rin c ip le s
a n d
a p p lic a tio n s
o f
s t a t i c

th y ris to r-c o n tro lle r s h u n t c o in p e n s a tn rs ;" . IEEE Trans. on Pow er A pparatus and System s, 1079,p p .1 9 3 - 1 9 4 5 .

1 5 .
P .M .
A nderson.
R .L .
X g r s \v a l.
J .E .
V an
N ess.
"Suhsynchronous resonancei n p o w rs > steins". IE E EP ress.N e\\
Y o rk , 1 9 9 0 .
1 6 .
A .M . S h a r d . J . H e y d e iiia n n a n dG . H o n d e rd . " A p p lic a tio n
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Electric Pow er System s ResearchJoum al. V o l.2 2 . 1 9 9 1 . p p . 1 8 1 -
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A .M . S h a ra f.A . G h o s h ." S p e d 2 n d to rq u e re g u la tio n< .i
perm anent
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in o to rs
u s in g
ru le
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fu z z y
lo p ic
c o n tro l" . P ro c e a iin g s
IE E E
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2 4 1

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