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8
E n g in e C o m p o n e n t D e s ig n :
R o ta tin g T u rb o m a c h in e ry
o n c e p t
g e n e ra l p u rp o s e o f ro ta tin g m a c h in e s is to e x c h a n g e m e c h a n ic a l e n e r g y
lo w in g s tre a m

o f flu id . T h e tu rb o m a c h in e s fo u n d in a irb re a th in g e n g in e s ny form s, such as fans, com pressors, turbines, free or pow er turbines, and rs. The design

o f th e s e d e v ic e s is o n e o f th e m o s t c ritic a l a n d
d iffic u lt
the engine developm ent process, for no progress w ith real hardw are can
e u n til a ll o f th e ro ta tin g c o m p o n e n ts a re in w o rk in g o rd e r.

u g h th is c h a p te r b e g in s w ith th e c o n s id e ra tio n o f a e ro d y n a m ic s , d u ra b ility s u e s a re e q u a lly im p o rta n t. B e c a u s e tu rb o m a c h in e s a re e x p e c te d to ru n fo r d s o f h o u rs w ith o u t m a jo r o v e rh a u l, it fo llo w s th a t th e y c a n n o t b e b a s e d ro d y n a m ic re q u ire m e n ts a lo n e . A

successful m achine results only from ite ra tiv e s e rie s o f th o u g h tfu l a e ro d y n a m ic , h e a t tra n s fe r, m a te ria ls , a n d a l e v a lu a tio n s . T h e b e s t s o lu tio n to e a c h d e s ig n p r o b le m e ffe c tiv e ly c o u p le s fo r th e im p o rta n t fa c to rs to g e th e r in th e c o rre c t p ro p o rtio n s . T h e d e s ig n th is c h a p te r w ill c le a rly illu s tra te th e in te rd e p e n d e n c y o f a e ro d y n a m ic s ctures. M oreover, the push

a n d p u ll o f th e re q u ire m e n ts o f c o m p o n e n ts
to the sam e shaft w ill also be dem onstrated.

c h a p te r w ill b e flirtin g w ith th e m o s t im p e n e tra b le a n d " p r o p r ie ta r y " d o - f th e e n g in e c o m p a n ie s b e c a u s e o f th e ir h e a v y in v e s tm e n t in th e s e te c h n o lo - w e ll a s th e g re a t c o m p e titiv e a d v a n ta g e s th a t a c c ru e to p ro v e n s u p e rio rity . ll to ta k e n o te o f th e c o ro lla ry , n a m e ly , th a t th e e n o r m o u s c a p a b ilitie s th e y , in c lu d in g s o p h is tic a te d c o m p u te r p ro g ra m s , te c h n ic a l d a ta , a n d s e a s o n e d n c e , a re v irtu a lly im p o s s ib le to r e p r o d u c e in th e c la s s ro o m . In d e e d , m a n y h a v e s p e n t th e ir e n tire c a re e rs le a rn in g to d e a l w ith o n e o r tw o fa c e ts o f g n p ro b le m s o f ro ta tin g tu rb o m a c h in e ry .

u s e th e r e is n o s in g le , a b s o lu te a n s w e r to e a c h q u e s tio n , th is is a ls o a n a re a udgm ent and personal preferences can strongly influence the outcom e. It is re tru e th a t m a n y d e c is io n s a re b a s e d u p o n fe e lin g s th a t a re n o t c o m p le te ly te d .

c a n th e s p irit o f th is p ro c e s s b e c a p tu r e d in a b a s ic d e s ig n c o u rs e a n d s till
t possible to

c re a te q u a n tita tiv e s o lu tio n s ? O u r h o p e s re s t o n th e d e s ig n at express the prim ary physical phenom ena at w ork. T hese tools are sim ple to b e ra p id ly a p p lie d , y e t th e y c o n ta in e n o u g h c o m p le x ity th a t fin a l c h o ic e s b a s e d o n ju d g m e n t. T h o s e w h o p a rtic ip a te in th is p ro c e s s w ill b e im p re s s e d ir a c c o m p lis h m e n ts a n d a w e d b y w h a t m u s t ta k e p la c e in th e " re a l w o rld ." s tu d y o f ro ta tin g m a c h in e ry is n o t n e w , a n d m a n y e x c e lle n t b o o k s a n d re - ave been

w ritte n fo r th e b e n e fit o f s tu d e n ts a n d p ra c tic in g p ro fe s s io n a ls
A IR C R A F T E N G IN E D E S IG N
n fo rm a tio n in o n e c h a p te r, th e re a d e rs a re u rg e d to u s e th e o p e n lite ra tu re
s ly in th e ir w o rk . S p e c ia l a tte n tio n is d ra w n to R e fs . 1 a n d 2 , w h ic h
a re

ks covering turbom achinery and m any related propulsion design subjects. s o c o n ta in e x c e lle n t lis ts o f re fe re n c e s f o r th o s e w h o w is h to lis te n d ire c tly a s t e r s .

s tra in th e g ro w th o f th is te x tb o o k , m a te ria l o n s u c h n o n a x ia l tu rb o m a c h in - ponents as centrifugal com pressors, folded com bustors, and radial turbines b e e n in c lu d e d . T h e s e d e v ic e s p la y a n im p o rta n t ro le in p ro p u ls io n , p a rtic - n sm all engines, and can be a part of the best design solution. R eferences -1 1

w ill p ro v id e a s ta rtin g p o in t f o r th e ir stu d y .
ly , w h e n
d is c u s s in g
th e
p a rts
of com pressors
a n d
tu rb in e s ,
o n e
fin d s
a
a tio n
o f te rm in o lo g y
i n
th e
o p e n
lite ra tu re .
I n
p a rtic u la r, th e
s ta tio n a ry
w hich are usually suspended from
the outer case, are frequently referred
ators, vanes, or nozzles, w hereas
th e ro ta tin g
airfoils, w hich

are usually to a n in te rn a l d is k , a re o fte n c a lle d ro to rs o r b la d e s . W e h a v e a tte m p te d n ifo rm , g e n e ric te rm s , b u t g re a t c a re is a d v is e d a s y o u m o v e th ro u g h th is

e s i g n
T o o ls
m a te ria l o u tlin e s th e d e v e lo p m e n t a n d s u m m a riz e s th e re s u lts fo r s e v e ra l
ld in g
blocks used
i n
th e
d e s ig n
o f a x ia l flo w
ro ta tin g

m achines. These e c o n s is te n t w ith th o s e u s e d th ro u g h o u t th is te x tb o o k in th e s e n s e th a t th e y y re p re s e n t th e d o m in a n t p h y s ic a l p h e n o m e n a . T h e re s u lts w ill th e re fo re ly re p ro d u c e

th e m a in
tre n d s

of the real world, as w ell as num bers that e rig h t b a llp a rk , b u t w ith o u t th e e x c e s s iv e c o s ts th a t a c c o m p a n y e x tre m e y . A n a d d itio n a l b e n e fit o f th is a p p r o a c h is a n a n a ly tic a l tra n s p a re n c y th a t c le a re r u n d e rs ta n d in g

and sounder reasoning.
e analyses provide all of the procedures required

to reach usable results. v e lo p m e n t d ra w s h e a v ily o n th e m a te ria l fo u n d in R e f. 1 1 . T h is in c lu d e s , u la r, th e c o m p r e s s o r a n d tu rb in e n o m e n c la tu re a n d v e lo c ity d ia g ra m n o ta - th o f w h ic h a re c o n s is te n t w ith th a t fo u n d in th e s ta n d a rd tu rb o m a c h in e ry e , a n d w ith th e d e ta ile d a x ia l flo w c o m p r e s s o r a n d tu rb in e d e s ig n p r o g r a m s s y s d e s ig n a te d , re s p e c tiv e ly , a s C O M P R

and T U R B N .
F a n a n d C o m p re s s o r A e ro d y n a m ic s
. I
A x ia l flo w ,
c o n s t a n t a x ia l v e lo c ity ,
re p e a tin g
s ta g e ,
re p e a tin g
a n - lin e d e s ig n .
T h e p r im a r y g o a l o f th is s e c tio n is to d e s c rib e a m e th o d
l allow

you to rapidly create advanced fan and com pressor stage designs o m a tic a lly g e n e ra te v e ry re lia b le in itia l e s tim a te s fo r th e tru ly e n o rm o u s o f te c h n ic a l d a ta re q u ire d a s in p u t f o r C O M P R . T h is s h o rtc u t is th e c ritic a l n t th a t a llo w s y o u to m a k e y o u r o w n d e s ig n c h o ic e s , w h ile re v e a lin g th e of how

fa n
a n d
com pressor stages behave. If the m ethod

strikes you as usly effortless, you m ay find com fort in the fact that sim ilar m ethods are th e s ta rtin g p o in t in in d u s try .

a s ic b u ild in g b lo c k o f th e a e r o d y n a m ic d e s ig n o f a x ia l flo w c o m p re s s o rs is
a d e , a n e n d le s s ly re p e a tin g a rra y o f a irfo ils (F ig . 8 .1 ) th a t re s u lts f r o m th e
D E S IG N : R O T A T IN G T U R B O M A C H IN E R Y
2 5 5
1
2
3
R o to r
S ta to r
V l
~
lU r
~
~
~
l
U
r
v I
g l = /4 2 = N 3
s o lid ity
=
or= c/s
tie s :
V1 =
V~R +
U
U1 ~
V 1 C O S ~ /1
U1 =
V 1 s in o tl
ul =
V ie c o s ~ l
V lR =
V 1R s in /3 j =
U l ta n /3 1
1 ,9 1 - ~ - I ) I R ~
O )F ~
U
F ig . 8 .1
1~2 = O gl
V
2
=
V 2R
+
U
1 ,1 2 ~
V 2 c o s o l2
V2 =
V 2 s in o t2
u2 =
V 2R c o s \u00a2~2
v2e =
V2R sin t2
=
u2 tan t2
1 ) 2 - ] - 1 / 2 R ~
0 9 /" ~
U
R epeating row com pressor stage nom enclature.
V 3=V l
t 3
= \u00b0~2
a 3=
a 1
passage acts as a sm all diffuser and is said to be w ell designed or behaved
provides a large static pressure
r i s e
w ith o u t in c u rrin g
u n a c c e p ta b le
to ta l
lo s s e s a n d /o r flo w
in s ta b ilitie s
caused by
shock w aves and/or boundary
p a ra tio n . T h e
art of com pressor design
is the
a b ility
t o
fin d th e
c a s c a d e
e rs
a n d a irfo il c o n to u r s th a t m a k e th is h a p p e n .
a good
a irfo il c a s c a d e
has been
found, a logical next step
w o u ld
b e
t o
in series w ith
a rotor that is m ade up of the sam e airfoils in m irror im age
e
a x ia l d ire c tio n , m o v in g
at a
s p e e d
th a t m a in ta in s
th e
o rig in a l re la tiv e
w
a n g le . I n th is
m anner
a com pressor stage
(that is, stator plus rotor) is
d from
a c a s c a d e , a n d , lik e w is e , p la c in g s im ila r s ta g e s in s e rie s m a y c re a te
ta g e
com pressor. The
f o c u s o f th is
s e c tio n , th e re fo re , is u p o n

th e d e s ig n behaved com pressor stages m ade up of "repeating" (that is, m irror im age) a irfo ils . F in a lly , th e a n a ly s is w ill b e b a s e d

o n th e b e h a v io r o f th e flo w
a t
a g e
or m ean
radius. W ith
th is in tro d u c tio n
i n
m in d , th e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f
ools for com pressors follow s.
s io n fa c to r
m m only
e m p lo y e d
m easure
o f th e
d e g r e e
o f difficulty
w hen
d e s ig n in g
a v e d
com pressor cascades or airfoil row s is the "diffusion factor":
g /)
v ,-v e
D --
1 -V e
+
2 o '- - - - ~ /
(8 .1 )

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