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Project Report Prasanta PDF

Project Report Prasanta PDF

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Published by Marcus Ramos

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Published by: Marcus Ramos on Dec 02, 2009
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01/11/2013

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Abstract
To provide quality of services to the end users during vertical handoff period,heterogeneous wireless networks have to be aware of quality of services (QoS) withineach access network. The traditional vertical handoffs algorithms are based onreceived signal strength (RSS) are not of QoS concerned and hence cannot fulfill therequirements of the users. Here, I propose a new vertical handoff algorithm whichuses received signal to inference plus noise ratio (SINR) from various accessnetworks as the handoff criteria. In this algorithm, the SINR from one network isconverted to the equivalent SINR of the target, so that the handoff algorithm can havethe knowledge of achievable bandwidths from both access networks to make handoffdecisions with QoS consideration. Moreover, power of the mobile station is controlledto maintain the SINR so that number handoff can be minimized due to ping pongeffect. It has been observed that SINR based vertical handoff algorithm canconsistently offer the end users with maximum available bandwidth during verticalhandoff contrary to the RSS based vertical handoff algorithms. Also, it is observed thatthe performance of RSS based handoff is different in different network conditions asagainst the SINR based algorithm. System level simulations also reveal theimprovement of overall system throughputs using SINR based vertical handoff,compared to the RSS based vertical handoff.
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2
Introduction
The popularity of wireless communication is increasing quite rapidly through out theworld after the introduction of cellular and broadband [2] technologies. The realpotential of broadband wireless networks lies with mobility. A hot debate is centeredon building metropolitan area networks using WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability forMicrowave Access)[1] technology based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. The demandof broadband and cellular technology is increasing due to its superior quality ofservices (QoS), greater coverage area as well as low cost effectiveness. The successof Wi-Fi network with IEEE 802.11x technology makes it possible to accessbroadband anywhere with low cost. The introduction of broadband wireless WiMaXsolution based on IEEE 802.16 technology makes it possible a standard based lowcost solution for the last mile. In particular, with its coverage of 30 miles and non lineof sight technology based on OFDM, it will be able to construct a metropolitan networkwhere broadband access from anywhere within the area is possible. With the inclusionof mobility, WiMaX could become the ultimate solution that provides a low latency,high bandwidth, and wide area connectivity to mobile users which is long sought afterby the industry. A metropolitan network will cover an area of up to 30 miles. Currentstudy shows that the effective range for broadband coverage under IEEE802.16a is 4to 5 miles. The eventual network might be composed of many base stationsconnected together to provide broadband connectivity to hundreds of stationary andmobile users. The intended applications of such a network are real-time mediastreaming and VOIP. The network must guarantee that the continuous services willnot be disrupted while a mobile user switched its connectivity from one station toanother due to signal fading or change of provider. The effectiveness of mobilitydepends on whether a moving node can maintain continuous connectivity with thebase station without packet loss or delay during handoff. One characteristic is thehandoff distance which specifies the minimum coverage between adjacent basestations for a moving node at maximum specified speed. Due to the proliferation ofexisting wireless technologies, a metropolitan network will consist of various wirelessaccessing technologies with different link speed and mobility support. In case WiMAX
 
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becomes the major broadband service provider to the metropolitan area and GPRS(General packet radio service)[10] the major cellular service provider, users must beable to easily roaming among different technologies without interruption. The successwill depend on the integration of mechanisms to deal with handoffs. Within ametropolitan network, a mobile user could switch between different accesstechnologies due to coverage and provider changes, like GPRS.WiMaX and GPRS are viewed as the future complementary access technologies.From one side, UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) core networkGPRS that uses GSM[10] (Global System for Mobile Communication) technology iscapable of providing data transmission with medium speed over wide area, supportinghigh numbers of mobile users. On the other side, IEEE 802.16 broadband network,WiMaX can offer high data rates relatively in large geographical areas as well as highdata rate as compared to the cellular GPRS and are expected to be widely deployedin the future network generation. The main problem of next generation network is toseamlessly transfer the connection of a mobile host exiting the coverage of the GPRSto another access network with larger coverage area like WiMax. In other words,interoperability is needed to support the mobile users between GPRS, withmobile internet access, keeping the connection on line when moving to WiMaxaccess network, thus providing always on connectivity and vice versa. But the mainissue will be to provide fast vertical handover between these heterogeneous accessnetworks of larger coverage area, considering the quality of service (QoS), continuousservice as well as cost effectiveness. Therefore, better algorithm is necessary in thehandover procedure instead of the received signal strength (RSS) based algorithm. Ithas been experimented that SINR is better than the RSS based since, it considers thenoise and interference factors in the background of the networks. Vertical handoff iswork of my thesis using SINR based approach. Moreover step is taken to control thetransmission power of the mobile to maintain the SINR for reducing the number ofhandoff and saving the battery power depending on the noise and interferencepresent.
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