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biometric technology

biometric technology

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Published by: api-19937584 on Dec 02, 2009
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Biometric Technology
Seminar Report 2003

BIOMETRICS refers to the automatic identification of a person based on his physiological / behavioral characteristics. This method of identification is preferred for various reasons;the person to be identified is required to be physically present at the point of identification; identification based on biometric techniques obviates the need to remember a password or carry a token. With the increased use of computers or vehicles of information technology, it is necessary to restrict access to sensitive or personal data. By replacing PINs, biometric techniques can potentially prevent unauthorized access to fraudulent use of ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, and computer networks. PINs and passwords may be forgotten, and token based methods of identification like passports and driver\u2019s licenses may be forged, stolen, or lost .Thus biometric systems of identification are enjoying a renewed interest. Various types of biometric systems are being used for real\u2013time identification ; the most popular are based on face recognition and fingerprint matching. However there are other biometric systems that utilize iris and retinal scan, speech, facial thermo grams, and hand geometry.

A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system, which makes a personal identification by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristics possessed by the user. An important issue in designing a practical system is to determine how an individual is identified. Depending on the context, a biometric system can be either a verification (authentication) system or an identification system. There are two different ways to resolve a person\u2019s identity : Verification and Identification. Verification ( Am I whom I claim I am ?)

M.E.S.C.E. Kuttippuram
Biometric Technology
Seminar Report 2003
or denying a person\u2019s

claimed identity. In Identification one has to establish a person\u2019s identity (whom am I?). Each one of these approaches has its own complexities and could probably be solved best by a certain biometric system.

Biometrics is rapidly evolving technology, which is being used in forensics such as criminal identification and prison security, and has the potential to be used in a large range of civilian application areas . Biometrics can be used transactions conducted via telephone and Internet (electronic commerce and electronic banking) . In automobiles, biometrics can replace keys with key -less entry devices.

M.E.S.C.E. Kuttippuram
Biometric Technology
Seminar Report 2003

Biometrics dates back to the ancient Egyptians, who measured people to identity them. But automated devices appeared within living memory. One of the first commercial devices introduced less than 30 years ago. The system is called the indentimat . The machine measured finger length and installed in a time keeping system. Biometrics is also catching on computer and communication system as well as automated teller machines (ATM\u2019s).

Biometrics devices have three primary components. One is an automated mechanism that scans and captures a digital / analog image of a living personal characteristics. Another handles compression, processing, storage and comparison of image with the stored data . The third interfaces with application systems. These pieces may be configured to suit different situations . A common issue is where the stored image resides:on a card, presented by the person being verified or at a host computer.

Recognition occurs when an individual\u2019s image is matched with one of a group of stored images . This is the way the human brain performs most day to day identifications. For the brain this is a relatively quick and efficient process, where as for computers to recognise that a living image matches one of many it has stored, the job can be time consuming and costly.

M.E.S.C.E. Kuttippuram

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