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5 Database and Instance Startup and Shutdown

5 Database and Instance Startup and Shutdown

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Part IIIThe Oracle Instance
Part III describes the architecture of the Oracle instance and explains the differentclient/server configurations it can have in a network environment. Part III also explainsthe Oracle startup and shutdown procedures.Part III contains the following chapters:
Chapter 5, "Database and Instance Startup and Shutdown"
Chapter 6, "Application Architecture"
Chapter 7, "Memory Architecture"
Chapter 8, "Process Architecture"
Chapter 9, "Database Resource Management"5.5 Database and Instance Startup and Shutdown5.1.Introduction to an Oracle Instance5.1.1.The Instance and the Database5.1.2.Connection with Administrator Privileges5.1.3.Initialization Parameter Files5.1.4.How Parameter Values Are Changed5.2.Instance and Database Startup5.2.1.How an Instance Is Started5.2.2.Restricted Mode of Instance Startup5.2.3.Forced Startup in Abnormal Situations5.2.4.How a Database Is Mounted5.2.5.How a Database Is Mounted with Real Application Clusters5.2.6.How a Standby Database Is Mounted5.2.7.How a Clone Database Is Mounted5.2.8.What Happens When You Open a Database5.2.9.Instance Recovery5.2.10.Undo Space Acquisition and Management5.2.11.Resolution of In-Doubt Distributed Transaction5.2.12.Open a Database in Read-Only Mode5.3.Database and Instance Shutdown5.3.1.Close a Database5.3.2.Close the Database by Terminating the Instance5.3.3.Unmount a Database5.3.4.Shut Down an Instance5.3.5.Abnormal Instance Shutdown
 
5 Database and InstanceStartup and Shutdown
This chapter explains the procedures involved in starting and stopping an Oracle instanceand database. It includes:
Introduction to an Oracle Instance
Instance and Database Startup
Database and Instance Shutdown
Introduction to an Oracle Instance
Every running Oracle database is associated with an Oracle instance. When a database isstarted on a database server (regardless of the type of computer), Oracle allocates amemory area called the System Global Area (SGA) and starts one or more Oracle processes. This combination of the SGA and the Oracle processes is called an
Oracleinstance
. The memory and processes of an instance manage the associated database'sdata efficiently and serve the one or multiple users of the database.Figure 5-1 shows an Oracle instance.
Figure 5-1
 An Oracle Instance
 
The Instance and the Database
After starting an instance, Oracle associates the instance with the specified database. Thisis called
mounting
the database. The database is then ready to be
opened
, which makesit accessible to authorized users.Multiple instances can run concurrently on the same computer, each accessing its own physical database. In clustered and massively parallel systems (MPS), Real ApplicationClusters enables multiple instances to mount a single database.
 
Only the database administrator can start up an instance and open the database. If adatabase is open, then the database administrator can shut down the database so that it isclosed. When a database is
closed
, users cannot access the information that it contains.Security for database startup and shutdown is controlled through connections to Oraclewith administrator privileges. Normal users do not have control over the current status of an Oracle database.
Connection with Administrator Privileges
Database startup and shutdown are powerful administrative options and are restricted tousers who connect to Oracle with administrator privileges. Depending on the operatingsystem, one of the following conditions establishes administrator privileges for a user:
The user's operating system privileges allow him or her to connect usingadministrator privileges.
The user is granted the
SYSDBA
or 
SYSOPER
privileges and the database uses password files to authenticate database administrators.When you connect with
SYSDBA
privileges, you are in the schema owned by
SYS
. Whenyou connect as
SYSOPER
, you are in the public schema.
SYSOPER
privileges are a subset of 
SYSDBA
privileges.
Initialization Parameter Files
To start an instance, Oracle must read an
initialization
 
parameter file
--a file containinga list of configuration parameters for that instance and database. Set these parameters to particular values to initialize many of the memory and process settings of an Oracleinstance. Most initialization parameters belong to one of the following groups:
Parameters that name things, such as files
Parameters that set limits, such as maximums
Parameters that affect capacity, such as the size of the SGA, which are called
variable parameters
Among other things, the initialization parameters tell Oracle:
The name of the database for which to start up an instance
How much memory to use for memory structures in the SGA
What to do with filled online redo log files
The names and locations of the database control files
The names of undo tablespaces or private rollback segments in the database
How Parameter Values Are Changed
The database administrator can adjust variable parameters to improve the performance of a database system. Exactly which parameters most affect a system depends on numerousdatabase characteristics and variables.

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