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6 Application Architecture

6 Application Architecture

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6.6 Application Architecture6.1.1.Client/Server Architecture6.1.2.Multitier Architecture6.1.2.1.Clients6.1.2.2.Application Servers6.1.2.3.Database Servers6.1.3.Oracle Net Services6.1.3.1.1.Connectivity6.1.3.1.2.Manageability6.1.3.1.3.Internet Scalability6.1.3.1.4.Internet Security6.1.3.2.How Oracle Net ServicesWorks6.1.3.3.The Listene6.1.3.3.1.Service InformationRegistration
 
6 Application Architecture
This chapter defines application architecture and describes how the Oracle server anddatabase applications work in a distributed processing environment. This material appliesto almost every type of Oracle database system environment.This chapter includes:* Client/Server Architecture* Multitier Architecture* Oracle Net ServicesClient/Server ArchitectureIn the Oracle database system environment, the database application and the database areseparated into two parts: a front-end or client portion, and a back-end or server portion--hence the term client/server architecture. The client runs the database application thataccesses database information and interacts with a user through the keyboard, screen, and pointing device, such as a mouse. The server runs the Oracle software and handles thefunctions required for concurrent, shared data access to an Oracle database.Although the client application and Oracle can be run on the same computer, greater efficiency can often be achieved when the client portions and server portion are run bydifferent computers connected through a network. The following sections discuss possible variations in the Oracle client/server architecture.Distributed processing is the use of more than one processor to perform the processingfor an individual task. Examples of distributed processing in Oracle database systemsappear in Figure 6-1.* In Part A of the figure, the client and server are located on different computers, andthese computers are connected through a network. The server and clients of an Oracledatabase system communicate through Oracle Net Services, Oracle's network interface.* In Part B of the figure, a single computer has more than one processor, and different processors separate the execution of the client application from Oracle.Note:This chapter applies to environments with one database on one server. In a distributeddatabase, one server (Oracle) may need to access a database on another server.Figure 6-1 The Client/Server Architecture and Distributed ProcessingText description of cncpt083.gif followsText description of the illustration cncpt083.gif Oracle client/server architecture in a distributed processing environment provides thefollowing benefits:
 
* Client applications are not responsible for performing any data processing. Rather,they request input from users, request data from the server, and then analyze and presentthis data using the display capabilities of the client workstation or the terminal (for example, using graphics or spreadsheets).* Client applications are not dependent on the physical location of the data. Even if thedata is moved or distributed to other database servers, the application continues tofunction with little or no modification.* Oracle exploits the multitasking and shared-memory facilities of its underlyingoperating system. As a result, it delivers the highest possible degree of concurrency, dataintegrity, and performance to its client applications.* Client workstations or terminals can be optimized for the presentation of data (for example, by providing graphics and mouse support), and the server can be optimized for the processing and storage of data (for example, by having large amounts of memory anddisk space).* In networked environments, you can use inexpensive client workstations to accessthe remote data of the server effectively.* If necessary, Oracle can be scaled as your system grows. You can add multipleservers to distribute the database processing load throughout the network (horizontallyscaled), or you can move Oracle to a minicomputer or mainframe, to take advantage of alarger system's performance (vertically scaled). In either case, all data and applicationsare maintained with little or no modification, because Oracle is portable between systems.* In networked environments, shared data is stored on the servers rather than on allcomputers in the system. This makes it easier and more efficient to manage concurrentaccess.* In networked environments, client applications submit database requests to the server using SQL statements. After it is received, the SQL statement is processed by the server,and the results are returned to the client application. Network traffic is kept to aminimum, because only the requests and the results are shipped over the network.See Also:o "Oracle Net Services" for more information about Oracle Net Serviceso Oracle9i Database Administrator's Guide for more information about clients andservers in distributed databasesMultitier ArchitectureIn a multitier architecture environment, an application server provides data for clients andserves as an interface between clients and database servers. This architecture is particularly important because of the prevalence of Internet use.This architecture enables use of an application server to:* Validate the credentials of a client, such as a Web browser * Connect to a database server * Perform the requested operationAn example of a multitier architecture appears in Figure 6-2.Figure 6-2 A Multitier Architecture Environment ExampleText description of cncpt121.gif followsText description of the illustration cncpt121.gif Clients

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