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Calculus Cheat Sheet Derivatives

Calculus Cheat Sheet Derivatives

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Calculus Cheat Sheet Derivatives
Calculus Cheat Sheet Derivatives

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Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edufor a complete set of Calculus notes.
2005 Paul Dawkins
Derivatives
Definition and Notation
If
( )
y f x
=
then the derivative is defined to be
( )( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f x h f x f xh
®
+ -¢=
.

If
( )
y f x
=
then all of the following areequivalent notations for the derivative.
( ) ( )
( )
( )
df dy  f x y f x Df xdx dx dx
¢ ¢= = = = =
If
( )
f x
=
all of the following are equivalentnotations for derivative evaluated at
a
=
.
( ) ( )
x a x a x a
df dy f a y Df adx dx
== =
¢ ¢= = = =

Interpretation of the Derivative
If
( )
y f x
=
then,1.

( )
m f a
¢=
is the slope of the tangentline to
( )
y f x
=
at
a
=
and theequation of the tangent line at
x a
=
isgiven by
( ) ( )( )
f a f a x a
¢= + -
.2.

( )
f a
¢
is the instantaneous rate of change of
( )
f x
at
x a
=
.3.

If
( )
f x
is the position of an object attime
x
then
( )
f a
¢
is the velocity of the object at
x a
=
.
Basic Properties and Formulas
If
( )
f x
and
( )
x
are differentiable functions (the derivative exists),
c
and
n
are any real numbers,1.

( ) ( )
c f c f x
¢¢=
2.

( ) ( ) ( )
f g f x g x
¢¢ ¢± = ±
3.

( )
f g f g f
¢¢ ¢= +

– Product Rule
4.

2
f f g f  g
¢¢ ¢æ ö-=ç ÷è ø

– Quotient Rule
5.

( )
0
cdx
=
6.

( )
1
n n
x n xdx
-
=
– Power Rule
7.

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
f g x f g x g xdx
¢ ¢=
This is the
Chain Rule

Common Derivatives
( )
1
xdx
=

( )
sincos
x xdx
=

( )
cossin
x xdx
= -

( )
2
tansec
xdx
=

( )
secsectan
x x xdx
=

( )
csccsccot
x x xdx
= -

( )
2
cotcsc
xdx
= -

( )
12
1sin1
xdxx
-
=-

( )
12
1cos1
xdxx
-
= --

( )
12
1tan1
xdx x
-
=+

( )
( )
ln
x x
=
( )
x x
dx
=
ee

( )
( )
1ln,0
x xdx x
= >
( )
1ln,0
x xdx x
= ¹

( )
( )
1log,0ln
a
x xdx x a
= >

Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edufor a complete set of Calculus notes.
2005 Paul Dawkins
Chain Rule Variants
The chain rule applied to some specific functions.1.

( )
()
( ) ( )
1
n n
f x n f x f xdx
-
¢=é ù é ùë û ë û
2.

( )
( )
( )
( )
f x f x
f xdx
¢=
ee
3.

( )
( )
( )( )
ln
f x f xdx f x
¢=é ùë û
4.

( )
( )
( ) ( )
sincos
f x f x f xdx
¢=é ù é ùë û ë û
5.

( )
( )
( ) ( )
cossin
f x f x f xdx
¢= -é ù é ùë û ë û
6.

( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
tansec
f x f x f xdx
¢=é ù é ùë û ë û
7.

[ ]
( )
[ ] [ ]
()()()()
secsectan
f x f x f x f x
dx
¢
=
8.

( )
( )
( )( )
12
tan1
f x f xdxf x
-
¢=é ùë û+ é ùë û

Higher Order Derivatives
The Second Derivative is denoted as
( )
( )
( )
222
d f   f x f xdx
¢¢= =
and is defined as
( ) ( )
( )
f x f x
¢¢¢ ¢=
,
i.e.
the derivative of thefirst derivative,
( )
f x
¢
.The n
th
Derivative is denoted as
( )
( )
nnn
d f   f xdx
=
and is defined as
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
n n
f x f x
-
¢=
,
i.e.
the derivative of the (
n
-1)
st
derivative,
( )
( )
1
n
f x
-
.
Implicit Differentiation
Find
¢
if
( )
2932
sin11
x y
y y x
-
+ = +
e
. Remember
( )
y y x
=
here, so products/quotients of
x
and
y
will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of
y
will use the chain rule. The “trick” is todifferentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a
y
you tack on a
y
¢
(from the chain rule).After differentiating solve for
¢
.
( ) ( )( )( )
( )
( )
29223292229292233293292922
2932cos1111232932cos1129cos29cos1123
x y x y x y x y x y x y x y
y x y x y y y y x y y x y x y y y y y y y x y y y x y
--- --- -
¢ ¢ ¢- + + = +- -¢ ¢ ¢ ¢- + + = + Þ =- -¢- - = - -
eeeeeee

Increasing/Decreasing – Concave Up/Concave DownCritical Points

x c
=
is a critical point of
( )
f x
provided either
1.

( )
0
f c
¢=
or
2.

( )
f c
¢
doesn’t exist.
Increasing/Decreasing
1.

If
( )
0
f x
¢>
for all
x
in an interval
I
then
( )
f x
is increasing on the interval
I
.2.

If
( )
0
f x
¢<
for all
x
in an interval
I
then
( )
f x
is decreasing on the interval
I
.3.

If
( )
0
f x
¢=
for all
x
in an interval
I
then
( )
f x
is constant on the interval
I
.
Concave Up/Concave Down
1.

If
( )
0
f x
¢¢>
for all
x
in an interval
I
then
( )
f x
is concave up on the interval
I
.2.

If
( )
0
f x
¢¢<
for all
x
in an interval
I
then
( )
f x
is concave down on the interval
I
.
Inflection Points
x c
=
is a inflection point of
( )
f x
if theconcavity changes at
c
=
.

Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edufor a complete set of Calculus notes.
2005 Paul Dawkins
ExtremaAbsolute Extrema
1.

c
=
is an absolute maximum of
( )
f x
if
( ) ( )
f c f x
³
for all
x
in the domain.2.

c
=
is an absolute minimum of
( )
f x
if
( ) ( )
f c f x
£
for all
x
in the domain.
Fermat’s Theorem
If
( )
f x
has a relative (or local) extrema at
x c
=
, then
x c
=
is a critical point of
( )
f x
.
Extreme Value Theorem
If
( )
f x
is continuous on the closed interval
[ ]
,
a b
then there exist numbers
c
and
so that,
1.
,
a c d b
£ £
,
2.

( )
f c
is the abs. max. in
[ ]
,
a b
,
3.

( )
f
is the abs. min. in
[ ]
,
a b
.
Finding Absolute Extrema
To find the absolute extrema of the continuousfunction
( )
f x
on the interval
[ ]
,
a b
use thefollowing process.1.

Find all critical points of
( )
f x
in
[ ]
,
a b
.2.

Evaluate
( )
f x
at all points found in Step 1.3.

Evaluate
( )
f a
and
( )
f b
.4.

Identify the abs. max. (largest functionvalue) and the abs. min.(smallest functionvalue) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3.
Relative (local) Extrema
1.

x c
=
is a relative (or local) maximum of
( )
f x
if
( ) ( )
f c f x
³
for all
x
near
c
.2.

x c
=
is a relative (or local) minimum of
( )
f x
if
( ) ( )
f c f x
£
for all
x
near
c
.
1
st
Derivative Test
If
x c
=
is a critical point of
( )
f x
then
x c
=
is1.

a rel. max. of
( )
f x
if
( )
0
f x
¢>
to the leftof
x c
=
and
( )
0
f x
¢<
to the right of
x c
=
.2.

a rel. min. of
( )
f x
if
( )
0
f x
¢<
to the leftof
x c
=
and
( )
0
f x
¢>
to the right of
c
=
.3.

not a relative extrema of
( )
f x
if
( )
f x
¢
isthe same sign on both sides of
x c
=
.
2
nd
Derivative Test
If
x c
=
is a critical point of
( )
f x
such that
( )
0
f c
¢=
then
x c
=
1.

is a relative maximum of
( )
f x
if
( )
0
f c
¢¢<
.2.

is a relative minimum of
( )
f x
if
( )
0
f c
¢¢>
.3.

may be a relative maximum, relativeminimum, or neither if
( )
0
f c
¢¢=
.
Finding Relative Extrema and/orClassify Critical Points
1.

Find all critical points of
( )
f x
.2.

Use the 1
st
derivative test or the 2
nd
derivative test on each critical point.
Mean Value Theorem
If
( )
f x
is continuous on the closed interval
[ ]
,
a b
and differentiable on the open interval
( )
,
a b
then there is a number
a c b
< <
such that
( )( ) ( )
f b f a f cb a
-¢=-
.
Newton’s Method
If
n
x
is the
n
th
guess for the root/solution of
( )
0
f x
=
then (
n
+1)
st
guess is
( )( )
1
nn nn
f x x x f x
+
= -¢
provided
( )
n
f x
¢
exists.