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Calculus Cheat Sheet Derivatives

Calculus Cheat Sheet Derivatives

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Published by Anthony Aguirre
Calculus Cheat Sheet Derivatives
Calculus Cheat Sheet Derivatives

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Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edufor a complete set of Calculus notes.
©
2005 Paul Dawkins
Derivatives
Definition and Notation
If 
( )
 y f x
=
then the derivative is defined to be
( )( ) ( )
0
lim
h
 f x h f x f xh
®
+ -¢=
.
 
If 
( )
 y f x
=
then all of the following areequivalent notations for the derivative.
( ) ( )
( )
( )
df dy  f x y f x Df xdx dx dx
¢ ¢= = = = =
 If 
( )
 f x
=
all of the following are equivalentnotations for derivative evaluated at
a
=
.
( ) ( )
 x a x a x a
df dy f a y Df adx dx
== =
¢ ¢= = = =
 
Interpretation of the Derivative
 If 
( )
 y f x
=
then,1.
 
( )
m f a
¢=
is the slope of the tangentline to
( )
 y f x
=
at
a
=
and theequation of the tangent line at
 x a
=
isgiven by
( ) ( )( )
 f a f a x a
¢= + -
.2.
 
( )
 f a
¢
is the instantaneous rate of change of 
( )
 f x
at
 x a
=
.3.
 
If 
( )
 f x
is the position of an object attime
 x
then
( )
 f a
¢
is the velocity of the object at
 x a
=
.
Basic Properties and Formulas
 If 
( )
 f x
and
( )
 x
are differentiable functions (the derivative exists),
c
and
n
are any real numbers,1.
 
( ) ( )
c f c f x
¢¢=
 2.
 
( ) ( ) ( )
 f g f x g x
¢¢ ¢± = ±
 3.
 
( )
 f g f g f
¢¢ ¢= +
 
 – Product Rule
4.
 
2
 f f g f  g
¢¢ ¢æ ö-=ç ÷è ø
 
 – Quotient Rule
 5.
 
( )
0
cdx
=
 6.
 
( )
1
n n
 x n xdx
-
=
 – Power Rule
 7.
 
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
 f g x f g x g xdx
¢ ¢=
 This is the
Chain Rule
 
Common Derivatives
( )
1
 xdx
=
 
( )
sincos
 x xdx
=
 
( )
cossin
 x xdx
= -
 
( )
2
tansec
 xdx
=
 
( )
secsectan
 x x xdx
=
 
( )
csccsccot
 x x xdx
= -
 
( )
2
cotcsc
 xdx
= -
 
( )
12
1sin1
 xdxx
-
=-
 
( )
12
1cos1
 xdxx
-
= --
 
( )
12
1tan1
 xdx x
-
=+
 
( )
( )
ln
 x x
a a adx
=
( )
 x x
dx
=
ee
 
( )
( )
1ln,0
 x xdx x
= >
( )
1ln,0
 x xdx x
= ¹
 
( )
( )
1log,0ln
a
 x xdx x a
= >
 
 
 
Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edufor a complete set of Calculus notes.
©
2005 Paul Dawkins
Chain Rule Variants
The chain rule applied to some specific functions.1.
 
( )
()
( ) ( )
1
n n
 f x n f x f xdx
-
¢=é ù é ùë û ë û
 2.
 
( )
( )
( )
( )
 f x f x
 f xdx
¢=
ee
 3.
 
( )
( )
( )( )
ln
 f x f xdx f x
¢=é ùë û
 4.
 
( )
( )
( ) ( )
sincos
 f x f x f xdx
¢=é ù é ùë û ë û
 5.
 
( )
( )
( ) ( )
cossin
 f x f x f xdx
¢= -é ù é ùë û ë û
 6.
 
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
tansec
 f x f x f xdx
¢=é ù é ùë û ë û
 7.
 
[ ]
( )
[ ] [ ]
()()()()
secsectan
 f x f x f x f x
dx
¢
=
 8.
 
( )
( )
( )( )
12
tan1
 f x f xdxf x
-
¢=é ùë û+ é ùë û
 
Higher Order Derivatives
 The Second Derivative is denoted as
( )
( )
( )
222
d f   f x f xdx
¢¢= =
and is defined as
( ) ( )
( )
 f x f x
¢¢¢ ¢=
,
i.e.
the derivative of thefirst derivative,
( )
 f x
¢
.The n
th
Derivative is denoted as
( )
( )
nnn
d f   f xdx
=
and is defined as
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
n n
 f x f x
-
¢=
,
i.e.
the derivative of the (
n
-1)
st
derivative,
( )
( )
1
n
 f x
-
.
Implicit Differentiation
Find
¢
if 
( )
2932
sin11
 x y
 y y x
-
+ = +
e
. Remember 
( )
 y y x
=
here, so products/quotients of 
 x
and
 y
 will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of 
 y
will use the chain rule. The “trick” is todifferentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a
 y
you tack on a
 y
¢
(from the chain rule).After differentiating solve for 
¢
.
( ) ( )( )( )
( )
( )
29223292229292233293292922
2932cos1111232932cos1129cos29cos1123
 x y x y x y x y x y x y x y
 y x y x y y y y x y y x y x y y y y y y y x y y y x y
--- --- -
¢ ¢ ¢- + + = +- -¢ ¢ ¢ ¢- + + = + Þ =- -¢- - = - -
eeeeeee
 
Increasing/Decreasing – Concave Up/Concave DownCritical Points
 
 x c
=
is a critical point of 
( )
 f x
provided either 
1.
 
( )
0
 f c
¢=
or 
2.
 
( )
 f c
¢
doesn’t exist.
Increasing/Decreasing
 1.
 
If 
( )
0
 f x
¢>
for all
 x
in an interval
 I 
then
( )
 f x
is increasing on the interval
 I 
.2.
 
If 
( )
0
 f x
¢<
for all
 x
in an interval
 I 
then
( )
 f x
is decreasing on the interval
 I 
.3.
 
If 
( )
0
 f x
¢=
for all
 x
in an interval
 I 
then
( )
 f x
is constant on the interval
 I 
.
Concave Up/Concave Down
 1.
 
If 
( )
0
 f x
¢¢>
for all
 x
in an interval
 I 
then
( )
 f x
is concave up on the interval
 I 
.2.
 
If 
( )
0
 f x
¢¢<
for all
 x
in an interval
 I 
then
( )
 f x
is concave down on the interval
 I 
.
Inflection Points
 x c
=
is a inflection point of 
( )
 f x
if theconcavity changes at
c
=
.
 
 
Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edufor a complete set of Calculus notes.
©
2005 Paul Dawkins
ExtremaAbsolute Extrema
 1.
 
c
=
is an absolute maximum of 
( )
 f x
 if 
( ) ( )
 f c f x
³
for all
 x
in the domain.2.
 
c
=
is an absolute minimum of 
( )
 f x
 if 
( ) ( )
 f c f x
£
for all
 x
in the domain.
Fermat’s Theorem
 If 
( )
 f x
has a relative (or local) extrema at
 x c
=
, then
 x c
=
is a critical point of 
( )
 f x
.
Extreme Value Theorem
 If 
( )
 f x
is continuous on the closed interval
[ ]
,
a b
then there exist numbers
c
and
so that,
1.
,
a c d b
£ £
,
2.
 
( )
 f c
is the abs. max. in
[ ]
,
a b
,
3.
 
( )
 f
is the abs. min. in
[ ]
,
a b
.
Finding Absolute Extrema
 To find the absolute extrema of the continuousfunction
( )
 f x
on the interval
[ ]
,
a b
use thefollowing process.1.
 
Find all critical points of 
( )
 f x
in
[ ]
,
a b
.2.
 
Evaluate
( )
 f x
at all points found in Step 1.3.
 
Evaluate
( )
 f a
and
( )
 f b
.4.
 
Identify the abs. max. (largest functionvalue) and the abs. min.(smallest functionvalue) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3.
Relative (local) Extrema
 1.
 
 x c
=
is a relative (or local) maximum of 
( )
 f x
if 
( ) ( )
 f c f x
³
for all
 x
near 
c
.2.
 
 x c
=
is a relative (or local) minimum of 
( )
 f x
if 
( ) ( )
 f c f x
£
for all
 x
near 
c
.
1
st
Derivative Test
 If 
 x c
=
is a critical point of 
( )
 f x
then
 x c
=
is1.
 
a rel. max. of 
( )
 f x
if 
( )
0
 f x
¢>
to the leftof 
 x c
=
and
( )
0
 f x
¢<
to the right of 
 x c
=
.2.
 
a rel. min. of 
( )
 f x
if 
( )
0
 f x
¢<
to the leftof 
 x c
=
and
( )
0
 f x
¢>
to the right of 
c
=
.3.
 
not a relative extrema of 
( )
 f x
if 
( )
 f x
¢
isthe same sign on both sides of 
 x c
=
.
2
nd
Derivative Test
 If 
 x c
=
is a critical point of 
( )
 f x
such that
( )
0
 f c
¢=
then
 x c
=
 1.
 
is a relative maximum of 
( )
 f x
if 
( )
0
 f c
¢¢<
.2.
 
is a relative minimum of 
( )
 f x
if 
( )
0
 f c
¢¢>
.3.
 
may be a relative maximum, relativeminimum, or neither if 
( )
0
 f c
¢¢=
.
Finding Relative Extrema and/orClassify Critical Points
1.
 
Find all critical points of 
( )
 f x
.2.
 
Use the 1
st
derivative test or the 2
nd
 derivative test on each critical point.
Mean Value Theorem
 If 
( )
 f x
is continuous on the closed interval
[ ]
,
a b
and differentiable on the open interval
( )
,
a b
 then there is a number 
a c b
< <
such that
( )( ) ( )
 f b f a f cb a
-¢=-
.
Newton’s Method
 If 
n
 x
is the
n
th
guess for the root/solution of 
( )
0
 f x
=
then (
n
+1)
st
guess is
( )( )
1
nn nn
 f x x x f x
+
= -¢
  provided
( )
n
 f x
¢
exists.

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