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Calculus Cheat Sheet Integrals

# Calculus Cheat Sheet Integrals

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Calculus Cheat Sheet Integrals
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03/16/2011

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Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edufor a complete set of Calculus notes.
2005 Paul Dawkins
Integrals
DefinitionsDefinite Integral:
Suppose
( )
f x
is continuouson
[ ]
,
a b
. Divide
[ ]
,
a b
into
n
subintervals of width
x
D
and choose
*
i
from each interval.Then
( )
( )
*1
lim
i
bani
f x dx f x x
®¥=
¥
= D
åò
.
Anti-Derivative :
An anti-derivative of
( )
f x
is a function,
( )
F x
, such that
( ) ( )
F x f x
¢=
.
Indefinite Integral :
( ) ( )
f x dx F x c
= +
ò
where
( )
F x
is an anti-derivative of
( )
f x
.
Fundamental Theorem of CalculusPart I :
If
( )
f x
is continuous on
[ ]
,
a b
then
( ) ( )
xa
g x f t d
=
ò
is also continuous on
[ ]
,
a b
and
( ) ( ) ( )
xa
x f t dt f xdx
¢= =
ò
.
Part II :
( )
f x
is continuous on
[ ]
,
a b
,
( )
F x
isan anti-derivative of
( )
f x
(
i.e.

( ) ( )
F x f x dx
=
ò
)then
( ) ( ) ( )
ba
f x dx F b F a
= -
ò
.
Variants of Part I :
( )
( )
( ) ( )
u xa
f t dt u x f u xdx
¢= é ùë û
ò

( )
( )
( ) ( )
bv x
f t dt v x f v xdx
¢= - é ùë û
ò

( )
( )( )
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
()()
u xv x
u x v x
f t dt u x f v x dx
¢ ¢= -
ò

Properties
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
f x g x dx f x dx g x dx
± = ±
ò ò ò

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
b b ba a a
f x g x dx f x dx g x dx
± = ±
ò ò ò

( )
0
aa
f x dx
=
ò

( ) ( )
b aa b
f x dx f x dx
= -
ò ò

( ) ( )
cf x dx c f x dx
=
ò ò
,
c
is a constant
( ) ( )
b ba a
cf x dx c f x dx
=
ò ò
,
c
is a constant
( ) ( )
b ba a
f x dx f t d
=
ò ò

( ) ( )
b ba a
f x dx f x dx
£
ò ò
If
( ) ( )
f x g x
³
on
a x b
£ £
then
( ) ( )
b aa b
f x dx g x dx
³
ò ò
If
( )
0
f x
³
on
a x b
£ £
then
( )
0
ba
f x dx
³
ò
If
( )
m f x
£ £
on
a x b
£ £
then
( ) ( ) ( )
ba
m b a f x dx M b a
- £ £ -
ò

Common Integrals
k dx k x c
= +
ò

1
1
1
,1
n n
n
x dx x c n
+
+
= + ¹ -
ò

11
ln
x
x dx dx x c
-
= = +
ò ò

11
ln
aax b
dx ax b c
+
= + +
ò

( )
lnln
udu u u u c
= - +
ò

u u
du c
= +
ò
ee
cossin
udu u c
= +
ò
sincos
udu u c
= - +
ò

2
sectan
udu u c
= +
ò
sectansec
u udu u c
= +
ò
csccotcsc
u udu u c
= - +
ò

2
csccot
udu u c
= - +
ò
tanlnsec
udu u c
= +
ò
seclnsectan
udu u u c
= + +
ò

( )
111
22
tan
ua aa u
du c
-
+
= +
ò

( )
1
22
1
sin
uaa u
du c
-
-
= +
ò

Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edufor a complete set of Calculus notes.
2005 Paul Dawkins
Standard Integration Techniques
Note that at many schools all but the Substitution Rule tend to be taught in a Calculus II class.
u
Substitution :
The substitution
( )
u g x
=
will convert
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
b g ba g a
f g x g x dx f u du
¢=
ò ò
using
( )
du g x dx
¢=
. For indefinite integrals drop the limits of integration.
Ex.

( )
23
21
5cos
x dx
ò

32213
3
u x du x dx x dx du
= Þ = Þ =

33
111::228
x u x u
= Þ = = = Þ = =

( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
23
285311855331
5coscossinsin8sin1
x x dx u duu
== = -
ò ò
Integration by Parts :
udv uv vdu
= -
ò ò
and
b bbaa a
udv uv vdu
= -
ò ò
. Choose
u
and
dv
fromintegral and compute
du
by differentiating
u
and compute
v
using
v dv
=
ò
.
Ex.

x
dx
-
ò
e

x x
u x dv du dx v
- -
= = Þ = = -
ee

x x x x x
x dx x dx x c
- - - - -
= - + = - - +
ò ò
eeeee

Ex.

53
ln
dx
ò

1
ln
x
u x dv dx du dx v x
= = Þ = =

( )
( )
( ) ( )
55553333
lnlnln5ln53ln32
xdx x x dx x x x
= - = -= - -
ò ò

Products and (some) Quotients of Trig Functions
For sincos
n m
xdx
ò
we have the following :
1.

n
odd.
Strip 1 sine out and convert rest tocosines using
22
sin1cos
x x
= -
, then usethe substitution cos
u x
=
.
2.

m
odd.
Strip 1 cosine out and convert restto sines using
22
cos1sin
x x
= -
, then usethe substitution
sin
u x
=
.
3.

n
and
m
both odd.
Use either 1. or 2.
4.

n
and
m
both even.
Use double angleand/or half angle formulas to reduce theintegral into a form that can be integrated.

Fortansec
n m
xdx
ò
we have the following :
1.

n
odd.
Strip 1 tangent and 1 secant out andconvert the rest to secants using
22
tansec1
x
= -
, then use the substitutionsec
u x
=
.
2.

m
even.
Strip 2 secants out and convert restto tangents using
22
sec1tan
x x
= +
, thenuse the substitution tan
u x
=
.
3.

n
odd and
m
even.
Use either 1. or 2.
4.

n
even and
m
odd.
Each integral will bedealt with differently.

Trig Formulas
:
( ) ( ) ( )
sin22sincos
x x
=
,
( ) ( )
( )
212
cos1cos2
x x
= +
,
( ) ( )
( )
212
sin1cos2
x
= -

Ex.

35
tansec
xdx
ò

( )( )
( )
35242424751175
tansectansectansecsec1sectansec1secsecsec
x xdx x x x xdx x x x xdxu u du u x x x c
== -= - == - +
ò òòò

Ex.

53
sincos
x x
dx
ò

( )
221122
2254333223222433
sin(sin)sinsinsincoscoscossin(1cos)cos(1)12
cossec2lncoscos
x x x x x x x x x x xuu uu u
dx dx dxdx u xdu du x x c
--- +
= == == - = -= + - +
ò ò òòò ò

Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edufor a complete set of Calculus notes.
2005 Paul Dawkins
Trig Substitutions :
If the integral contains the following root use the given substitution andformula to convert into an integral involving trig functions.
222
sin
ab
a b x x
- Þ =

22
cos1sin
q
= -

222
sec
ab
b x a x
- Þ =

22
tansec1
q
= -

222
tan
ab
a b x x
+ Þ =

22
sec1tan
q
= +

Ex.

22
16
49
xx
dx
-
ò

2233
sincos
x dx d
q q
= Þ =

222
44sin4cos2cos49
x
q q
= - = =-
Recall
2
x x
=
. Because we have an indefiniteintegral we’ll assume positive and drop absolutevalue bars. If we had a definite integral we’dneed to compute
’s and remove absolute value bars based on that and,if 0if 0
x x x x x
³ì=í- <î
In this case we have
2
2cos49
x
=-
.
( )
( )
23sin2cos2
2249
16
12sin
cos12csc12cot
d d c
q
q q q
== = - +ó õ
òò
Use Right Triangle Trig to go back to
x
’s. Fromsubstitution we have
32
sin
x
=
so,From this we see that
2
493
cot
x x
-
=
. So,
222
16
44949
x x xx
dx c
--
= - +
ò
Partial Fractions :
If integrating
( )( )
P xQ x
dx
ò
where the degree of
( )
P x
is smaller than the degree of
( )
Q x
. Factor denominator as completely as possible and find the partial fraction decomposition of the rational expression. Integrate the partial fraction decomposition (P.F.D.). For each factor in thedenominator we get term(s) in the decomposition according to the following table.Factor in
( )
Q x
Term in P.F.DFactor in
( )
Q x
Term in P.F.D
ax b
+

Aax b
+

( )
ax b
+

( ) ( )
122
A A Aax bax b ax b
+ + +++ +
L

2
ax bx c
+ +

2
Ax Bax bx c
++ +

( )
2
ax bx c
+ +

( )
1122
k
A x B Ax Bax bx cax bx c
+++ ++ ++ +
L

Ex.

2
()()
2
14
713
x x
x x
dx
- +
+
ò

( )
( )
2222
()()21322
2
316411443164144
713
4ln1ln48tan
x x x xx x xx x
x x x
dx dxdx x x
-
+-- ++-+ +
+
= += + += - + + +
ò òò
Here is partial fraction form and recombined.
2
222
4)()()()()()()
2
1114414
(713
Bx C x x x x x x x
A x Bx C  A x x
+ +
+ --- + + - +
++
= + =
Set numerators equal and collect like terms.
( ) ( )
22
7134
x x A B x C B x A
+ = + + - + -
Set coefficients equal to get a system and solveto get constants.713404316
A B C B A  A B
+ = - = - == = =
An alternate method that
sometimes
works to find constants. Start with setting numerators equal in previous example :
( )
( ) ( )
22
71341
x x A x Bx C x
+ = + + + -
. Chose
nice
values of
x
and plug in.For example if
1
=
we get
205
A
=
which gives 4
A
=
. This won’t always work easily.