12 References13 External linksHistory Vincenz Czerny (1842-1916), a surgical pioneer in breast reconstruction.The 19th centurySince the late nineteenth century, breast implants have been used to surgically augment the size(volume), modify the shape (contour), and enhance the feel (tact) of a woman's breasts. In 1895,surgeon Vincenz Czerny effected the earliest breast implant emplacement when he used thepatient's autologous adipose tissue, harvested from a benign lumbar lipoma, to repair the asymmetryof the breast from which he had removed a tumor. In 1889, surgeon Robert Gersunyexperimented with paraffin injections, with disastrous results. From the first half of the twentiethcentury, physicians used other substances as breast implant fillers--ivory, glass balls, ground rubber,ox cartilage, Terylene wool, gutta-percha, Dicora, polyethylene chips, Ivalon (polyvinyl alcohol--formaldehyde polymer sponge), a polyethylene sac with Ivalon, polyether foam sponge (Etheron),polyethylene tape (Polystan) strips wound into a ball, polyester (polyurethane foam sponge) Silasticrubber, and teflon-silicone prostheses.The 20th centuryIn the mid-twentieth century, Morton I. Berson, in 1945, and Jacques Maliniac, in 1950, eachperformed flap-based breast augmentations by rotating the patient's chest wall tissue into the breastto increase its volume. Furthermore, throughout the 1950s and the 1960s, plastic surgeons usedsynthetic fillers--including silicone injections received by some 50,000 women, from which developedsilicone granulomas and breast hardening that required treatment by mastectomy. In 1961, the American plastic surgeons Thomas Cronin and Frank Gerow, and the Dow Corning Corporation,developed the first silicone breast prosthesis, filled with silicone gel; in due course, the firstaugmentation mammoplasty was performed in 1962 using the Cronin-Gerow Implant, prosthesismodel 1963. In 1964, the French company Laboratoires Arion developed and manufactured thesaline breast implant, filled with saline solution, and then introduced for use as a medical device in1964.