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Table Of Contents

1.5.1ELF and ULF (below 3 kHz) and VLF (3–30 kHz)
2.7.5Combined log-normal and Rayleigh distribution
2.7.6Rice distribution
2.7.7The gamma distribution
2.7.8Other distributions
2.8Radio noise
2.9Link power budgets
2.9.1Fading allowances
2.10Diversity
2.10.1Correlation coefficient
2.10.2Diversity gain and diversity improvement
2.11References
Basic principles 2
3.1Vector nature of radiowaves
3.1.1Qualitative description of the plane wave
3.1.2Complex phasor notation
3.1.3The sense of time and space
3.1.4Linear, circular and elliptical polarisation
3.2Multipath propagation
3.2.1Reinforcement and cancellation
3.2.2Flat and selective fading
3.2.3The broadband channel and correlation bandwidth
3.2.4Fast and slow fading
3.2.5Delay spread
3.2.6Frequency spread, or Doppler
3.2.7Direction of arrival
3.2.8Conclusions
3.3Footnote: a useful mathematical approximation
4.1Introduction
4.2Quality parameters for radiocommunications circuits
4.2.1Key terms and definitions
4.2.2Related propagation issues
4.2.3A note of caution
4.3Event durations
4.4Digital radio networks
4.4.1General considerations
4.4.2Modern digital radio systems
4.4.3Related propagation issues
4.4.4Simultaneous fading
4.5Long-term and short-term criteria
4.5.1The long-term criteria
4.5.2The short-term criteria
4.5.3A simple design exercise
4.6ITU-R performance and availability objectives
4.6.1General
4.6.2Fixed service performance objectives
4.6.2.1ITU-R objectives
4.6.2.2Propagation in any month
4.6.2.3Errored seconds ratio
4.6.3Fixed service availability objectives
4.6.3.1ITU-R objectives
4.6.3.2Propagation issues
4.6.4Fixed satellite service performance objectives
4.6.4.1ITU-R objectives
4.6.4.2Propagation issues
4.6.5Fixed satellite service availability objectives
4.6.5.1ITU-R objectives
4.6.5.2Propagation issues
4.6.6.1Fixed satellite service protection
4.6.6.2Fixed service protection
4.6.6.3Propagation issues
4.7Worst month
4.7.1The concept of the worst month
4.7.2Average worst-month statistics
4.7.3Worst months for other return periods
4.8Simple checks on the design
Electromagnetic wave propagation
5.1Introduction
5.2Power budget
5.2.1Transmitting antennas
5.2.2Receiving antennas
5.2.3Free-space transmission loss
5.2.4Link power budget
5.3Basic electromagnetic theory
5.3.1Plane-wave solutions
5.3.2Wave impedance
5.3.3Power flow and Poynting’s theorem
5.3.4Exponential notation
5.4Radiation from current distributions
5.4.1Radiation from a short current element
5.4.2Radiation resistance
5.4.3The halfwave dipole
5.5Reference
Reflection and scattering from rough surfaces
6.1Introduction
6.2Reflection from a plane surface
6.2.1The complex reflection coefficient
6.2.2Definition of reflection angles
6.2.3Designation of polarisation
6.3Reflection by perfectly-conducting surfaces
6.3.1Theory of images
6.3.2Perfect reflection for perpendicular polarisation
6.3.3Perfect reflection for parallel polarisation
6.3.4Discussion of perfect-reflection results
6.4Reflection by finitely-conducting surfaces
6.4.1Electrical properties relevant to reflection
6.4.2Snell’s law for angle of refraction
6.4.3Continuity of tangential electric fields
6.4.4Continuity of tangential magnetic field
6.4.5Complex permittivity
6.4.6General complex reflection coefficients
6.5The plane-earth two-ray reflection model
6.5.1Explicit calculation
6.6Approximation to two-ray reflection
6.7Reflection and scattering from rough surfaces
Clear-air characteristics of the troposphere
7.1Introduction
7.2Causes and effects of refraction in the troposphere
7.2.1Electromagnetic waves
7.2.2Radio refractive index
7.2.3Effect of the refractive index on radiowaves
7.2.5Refractive index measurements
7.3Anomalous propagation: multipath and ducting
7.3.1Types of duct
7.3.2Evaporation
7.3.3Nocturnal radiation
7.3.4Subsidence inversion
7.3.5Advection
7.4Propagation models
7.4.1Statistical and deterministic models
7.4.2Geometrical optics
7.4.3Mode theory
7.4.4Parabolic equation
7.5Turbulent scatter
8.2Mathematical formulation for knife-edge diffraction
8.3Application of knife-edge diffraction
8.3.1Diffraction loss
8.3.2Fresnel clearance
8.4Ray-based diffraction methods
8.4.1GTD/UTD in two dimensions
8.4.2A specific UTD formulation
8.4.3Sample UTD results
8.4.4Diffraction in three dimensions
8.4.5Ray-tracing methods
8.4.6Further reading
8.5References
Short-range propagation
9.1Introduction
9.2Outdoor propagation
9.2.1Outdoor path categories
9.2.2Path loss models
9.2.2.1Line-of-sight within a street canyon
9.2.2.2Models for nonline-of-sight situations
9.2.3Influence of vegetation
9.2.4Default parameters for site-general calculations
9.3Indoor propagation
9.3.2Indoor path loss models
9.3.3Delay spread models
9.3.3.1Multipath
9.3.3.2RMS delay spread
9.3.3.5Effect of movement of objects in the room
9.4Propagation in tunnels
9.5Leaky feeder systems
9.6The near field
Numerically intensive propagation prediction methods
10.1Introduction
10.1.1Intractability of exact solutions
10.1.2General remarks on numerical methods
10.1.3Chapter outline
10.2Integral equation methods
10.2.1Derivation of integral equation
10.2.3Numerical evaluation of integral equations
10.3Parabolic equation methods
10.3.1Derivation of the parabolic equation
10.3.2Summary of assumptions and approximations
10.3.5Parabolic equation conclusions
10.3.6Sample applications of the parabolic equation method
10.4Ray-tracing methods
10.4.1Ray-tracing elements
10.4.2Field strength calculation
10.5References
Outdoor mobile propagation
11.1Introduction
11.1.1The outdoor mobile radio channel
11.1.2System types
11.2Macrocells
11.2.1Introduction
11.2.2Definition of parameters
11.2.3Empirical path loss models
11.2.3.1Clutter factor models
11.2.3.2The Okumura–Hata model
11.2.3.3The COST 231–Hata model
11.2.3.4Environment categories
11.2.4Physical models
11.2.4.1The Ikegami model
11.2.4.2Rooftop diffraction
11.3.2Statistical characterisation
11.3.3Impact on coverage
11.3.4Location variability
11.3.5Correlated shadowing
11.3.6Conclusions
11.4Microcells
11.4.1Introduction
11.4.2Dual-slope empirical models
11.4.3Physical models
11.4.4Line-of-sight models
11.4.4.1Two-ray model
11.4.4.2Street canyon models
11.4.5Nonline-of-sight models
11.4.5.1Propagation mechanisms
11.4.5.2Site-specific ray models
11.4.6Discussion
11.4.7Microcell shadowing
11.4.8Conclusions
11.5References
Propagation in rain and clouds
12.1Introduction
12.2Rain
12.2.1Rain drop size distributions
12.2.2Rain drop shapes
12.3Other forms of hydrometeor
12.3.1Liquid water clouds and fog
12.3.2Ice hydrometeors
12.3.3Ice crystals
12.3.4Snow
12.3.5Hail and graupel
12.3.6Melting layer
12.4Refractive indices of ice and water
12.5Hydrometeor scattering theory
12.5.1General
12.5.2Rayleigh scattering region
12.5.3Optical and resonance scattering regions
12.6Attenuation effects
12.6.1Rain and cloud
12.6.2Melting layer
12.7Polarisation dependence
12.7.1Concept of principal planes
12.7.2Differential attenuation and phase shift in rain
12.7.3Attenuation – XPD relations
12.7.4Rain drop canting angles
12.7.5Ice crystal principal planes
12.7.6Differential phase shift due to ice
12.8Spatial–temporal structure of rain
12.8.1Temporal (rainfall rate)
12.8.2.Spatial (vertical and horizontal structure)
12.9Bistatic scatter in rain
12.10References
The propagation aspects of broadcasting at VHF and UHF
13.1Introduction
13.2Limit of service determination
13.3Protection ratios
13.7.1DAB
13.7.2DTT
13.8Appendix
13.8.1Field strength measurement and the antenna factor
13.8.2The voltage induced in a halfwave dipole
Propagation aspects of mobile spread spectrum networks
14.1Introduction to spread spectrum
14.2Properties of DS-CDMA waveforms
14.3Impact of the mobile channel
14.4DS-CDMA system performance
14.5DS-CDMA channel measurements and models
14.6Support of handover in cellular networks
14.7Conclusions
14.8Acknowledgments
14.9References
Basic physics of the ionosphere
15.1Introduction
15.1.1What is the ionosphere?
15.1.2Where does the ionosphere fit into the atmosphere?
15.1.3When was the ionosphere discovered?
15.1.4How do we study the ionosphere?
15.1.5Why do we study the ionosphere?
15.2The environment of the ionosphere
15.2.1Ionising solar radiations
15.2.2Temperature at ionospheric heights
15.2.3Composition of the upper atmosphere
15.2.4The scale height
15.2.5The geomagnetic field
15.3Formation and photochemistry of the ionised layers
15.3.2Chapman layers
15.3.3The continuity equation
15.3.4Ion chemistry
15.3.5The photochemical scheme of the ionosphere
15.4Dynamics of the ionosphere
15.4.1Equation of motion of the charged particles
15.4.3The ionospheric dynamo
15.4.4Atmospheric tides
15.4.5Atmospheric waves
15.4.6Thermospheric winds
15.4.7The vertical circulation
15.4.8The F2 peak
15.4.9The topside ionosphere
15.5Ionospheric phenomena
15.5.1The D layer
15.5.2The E layer
15.5.3Sporadic E
15.5.4F layer behaviour
15.5.5F2 layer anomalies
15.5.6Small-scale irregularities
15.5.7The auroral ovals, polar cap and trough
15.6Solar–terrestrial relations and ionospheric storms
15.6.2Geomagnetic storms
15.6.3Ionospheric storms
15.6.4Space weather
15.6.5Long-term change
15.7Conclusions
15.8Bibliography
Ionospheric propagation
16.1A systems perspective
16.2Ionospheric morphology
16.3Theory of propagation in the ionosphere
16.3.1Vertical propagation – no collisions
16.3.2Group path and phase path
16.3.3Oblique propagation
16.3.4Absorption
16.4Ray tracing
16.4.1Introduction
16.4.2Virtual techniques
16.4.2.1Simple transionospheric models
16.4.3Numerical ray tracing
16.4.4Analytic ray tracing
16.5The basic MUF, multipath and other HF issues
16.6Fading and Doppler effects
16.8References
Ionospheric prediction methods and models
17.1Introduction
17.1.1System design and service planning
17.2.Ionospheric models
17.2.1Introduction
17.2.2Empirical models
17.2.2.1Electron density profile models
17.2.2.2ITU database of ionospheric coefficients
17.2.3Physical ionospheric models
17.2.4Parameterised models
17.2.4.1PIM
17.3Prediction methods
17.3.1HF
17.3.1.1ICEPAC
17.3.2Computerised models of ionospheric scintillation
17.4Application specific models
17.5Ionospheric sounders for HF frequency management
17.6.1Introduction
17.6.2PRISM
17.6.3Ionospheric forecasting
17.7References
Surface waves, and sky waves below 2 MHz
18.1Introduction
18.2Applications
18.3Surface-wave propagation
18.3.1What is the surface wave?
18.3.2Theory for a homogeneous smooth earth
18.3.2.1Plane finitely conducting earth
18.3.2.2Spherical finitely conducting earth
18.3.3Atmospheric effects
18.3.4ITU-R recommended prediction method
18.3.5Ground conductivity maps
18.3.6Smooth earth of mixed conductivity
18.3.7The effects of buildings
18.4Sky-wave propagation below 2 MHz
18.4.1What is the sky wave? – hops and modes
18.4.2Waveguide-mode field strength prediction theory
18.4.3Wave-hop field strength prediction theory
18.4.4An empirical field-strength prediction theory
18.4.4.1General features
18.4.4.2Terminal losses and sea gain
18.4.4.3Polarisation coupling loss
18.4.4.4Temporal variability
18.5Antenna efficiency
18.6Surface-wave/sky-wave interactions
18.7Background noise
18.8Acknowledgments
18.9References
Terrestrial line-of-sight links: Recommendation ITU-R P.530
19.1Introduction
19.2Overview of propagation effects
19.3Link design
19.3.1General
19.3.2Path clearance
19.3.2.1Nondiversity case
19.3.2.2Height diversity case
19.4Prediction of system performance
19.4.1Propagation in clear air
19.4.1.1Multipath fading on a single hop of a link
19.4.1.3Signal level enhancement
19.4.2Propagation in rain
19.4.2.1Attenuation by rain
19.4.2.4Rain fading on multihop links
19.4.2.5Depolarisation by rain
19.5Mitigation methods
19.5.1Techniques without diversity
19.5.2Diversity techniques
19.5.3Cross-polar cancellation
19.6References
The principal elements of Recommendation ITU-R P.452
20.1Introduction
20.3Radio meteorological studies
20.4Propagation measurements
20.5The propagation modelling problem
20.6Worst month considerations
20.7Path profiles
20.8Path characterisation
20.9The propagation models
20.9.1Line of sight
20.9.2Terrain diffraction
20.9.3Tropospheric scatter
20.9.4Ducting and elevated layer reflection/refraction
20.9.6Local clutter losses
20.10Hydrometeor scatter
20.10.1The COST210 and Recommendation 452 models
20.10.2Basic scenario of the Recommendation P.452 version
20.11Deriving the overall prediction
20.12References
Earth–space propagation: Recommendation ITU-R P.618
21.1Introduction
21.2Overview
21.2.1General
21.2.2Propagation effects
21.3Ionospheric effects
21.4Clear-air effects
21.4.1General
21.4.2Free-space loss and attenuation by atmospheric gases
21.4.3Phase decorrelation across the antenna aperture
21.4.4Beam spreading loss
21.4.5Scintillation and multipath fading
21.4.6Angle of arrival
21.4.7Propagation delays
21.5Hydrometeor effects
21.5.1General
21.5.2Prediction of attenuation statistics for an average year
21.5.3Seasonal variations – worst month
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(Electromagnetic Waves) Les W. Barclay-Propagation of Radiowaves-IEE (2003)

(Electromagnetic Waves) Les W. Barclay-Propagation of Radiowaves-IEE (2003)

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Electromagnetic Waves by Les W. Barclay
Propagation of radio waves 2003
Electromagnetic Waves by Les W. Barclay
Propagation of radio waves 2003

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Published by: farouq_razzaz2574 on Jul 27, 2014
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