The most known type since long time, starting by:Leased Line (DS1 or T1) physical circuit (Old style and limited)Virtual Circuit (New style unlimited Virtual Connections) through Frame Relay Cloud, started on late 90’s. And recently, because of the Fiber-Optic’s longer cable length used today, Ethernet through EoMPLS can provide uswith WAN connection as well.Leased lines have been around for almost 20 years. Leased Line has too many names:Leased Circuit, Virtual CircuitSerial Link or LinePoint to Point Link or LineT1 or T3WAN Link or LineHowever, many people today use the generic term Service Provider or Internet Service Provider (ISP) to refer tocompany (Telco Company– Old Term) that provides a form of WAN, including Internet services.
Leased Line WANs
Lease Line between 2 routers is just a Crossover Cable similar to an Ethernet Crossover cable but with few distancelimitations, rather, a lease line can go for miles. Each router can send any time – Full-Duplex – over a leased Line, for tens, hundreds, or even thousands of miles. The speed is Symmetric, meaning that both routers send and receivebits at the same speed. Synchronous, meaning the Upstream and the Downstream is the same, which is good for businesses especially if they have Web-Servers in-house, and not like home Cable or DSL where it is Asymmetricand Asynchronous, meaning the Downstream is more than the Upstream.
How leased Lines can be used by Routers?
The main goal for a WAN is to move data between LANs. In 1990’s and before the internet boosts, companies usedWAN to connect Main office with branch offices and different locations. From a networking perspective, think of eachsite as being one or more LANS that need to communicate with each other, and to communicate, those LANs need tobe connected to each other using a WAN type connection. Usually the router connected to LAN at one interface portand another at WAN link which is between 2 routers.
(Note: most of business these days use DSL, Cable, or T1 for Internet instead of dedicated private Lease Lines, and if they are looking for secure connection between their sites,they use VPN connections which equivalent to private lease line and much cheaper)
, the following figure shows asmall Network with one Leased Line.The world of WAN technologies includes many different options and types of WAN can be used, in addition to theleased line shown in the figure. WAN technologies include a large number of options for physical links, as well as theData Link protocols that control these links. If you have to compare WAN technologies with LAN technologies, thewired LAN world basically has one major option today – which is Ethernet – because Ethernet won the home andoffice wired battle in the marketplace back in the 1980’s and 1990’s.