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Networking Interview Questions

Networking Interview Questions

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Network Interview Questions
What is Network?
A Network is an interconnection of devices.
What is Networking?
Networking is the communication between the interconnected devices to
share the network resources.
Types of Networks?
LAN, WAN, and MAN.

i) Operate within a limited geographic Area.
ii) Allow multi-access to high bandwidth media.
iii) Control the network privately under local admin.
iv) Provide full-time connectivity to local services.


i) Operate over a large geographic Area.
ii) Allow access over serial interfaces operating at lower speeds.
iii) Provide fulltime and part time connectivity.
iv) Connect devices separated over wide, even global Areas.

What is HUB, SWITCH and Router?
A Hub is a device into which can connect all devices on network. So they
can communicate together. Hub is a broadcast device.
A Switch is a device into which can connect all devices on network. So they
can communicate together. Hub is a unicast device.
Router is a device, which allows communication possible between two or
more different networks present in different or same geographic location.
What is topology?
Topology is type of network connection of a system. Topology is divided
into two: physical topology and logical topology.

Physical topology: The layout of the physical cabling in a network.
Logical topology: The logical path of the signal as it travels through the
physical topology in a network.

Network interface card is an interface between the computer and LAN.
Internetworking Model
When networks first came into being, computers could typically
communicate only with computers from the same manufacturers.

In the late 1970\u2019s, the International Organization for Standardization to break this barrier created the OSI Open system Inter Connection model. The OSI model was helping vendors create interoperable network devices. The OSI model describes how data and network information are communicated from applications on one computer, through the network media, to an application on another computer.

OSI Model:
Application Layer: It is responsible for providing network services to the
users. It is also called as a desktop layer.

Services are identified by using port no. Port nos are also called as entry and exit point to the layer. 0 \u2013 1023 are reserved port, 1024 \u2013 65535 open client ports.

PDU (Protocol Data Unit) application data: To communicate and exchange information, each layer uses. These holds the control information attached to the data at each layer of the model, which is typically attached to the header of the data field but can also be in the tailor or end of the data field.

Presentation Layer: It is responsible for converting for data in standard

format. Encoding, Encryption and compression will be done by source
presentation layer. Decompression, decryption and decoding done by
destination presentation layer.
Ex: - Text \u2013 ASCII, Graphic \u2013 BMP, Audio \u2013 WAV, Video \u2013 MPEG etc.

Session Layer: It is responsible for establishing, maintaining and

terminating the session. Session layer using session ID.
Ex: - RPC- Remote Procedure call, SQL- Sequence Query Language, NFS-
Network File System.

Transport Layer: It is responsible for providing connectivity between end-
to-end connections. It is also called as Heart of OSI layer.
Tasks are performed: -
Identifying services:

oriented; Acknowledgement; reliable; slower; Port no \u2013 6. It is slower because acknowledgement sent every request.

Ex: - HTTP; FTP; SMTP; DNS etc.
User Data Protocol (UDP); connection less; no acknowledgement;
unreliable; Faster; port no \u2013 17.
Ex: - DNS; DHCP; TFTP etc.
Multiplex and Demultiplex:
Multiplex will be done source layer.
Destination layer will do demultiplexing.
Before sending data the source PC divided the data into segments
because of limitation with network devices.
Ex: - MTU = 1500 bytes (Maximum Transmission Unit)
Sequencing and reassembling:
After dividing the data into segments source transport layer will give
the sequence no for the segments.
After receiving the segments data can put back together on the
receiving side exactly as transmitted.
Error correction:

After receiving the segments the destination transport layer will identifying the missing segments and it will send the request to transport source layer. The source device working with IP only the missing segments transport from the source device. IPX will retransmit the whole message.

Flow control:

Before sending the data source PC will check with destination PC. How fast destination PC can receive the data by sending the dump packet. It is called as flow-control or windowing.

(TCP) Transport Header + Data is called segment.
Network Layer: It is responsible for providing best path for data to reach
the destination. Logical address works on this layer. Router is a network
layer device.

It is divided into two parts.
Routed Protocol. Ex: - IP, IPX, AppleTalk.
Routing Protocol. Ex: - RIP, IGRP, OSPF, and EIGRP.
(IP) Network Header + segment = packet

Source IP Destination IP
Data Link Layer: It is divided into two-sub layer.
LLC (Logical Link Control)
It talks about WAN protocol Ex: - PPP, HDLC Frame Relay.

MAC (Media Access Control)
It talks about physical address. It is a 48-bit address. Ex: - 12 digit
Hex. It is also responsible for error detection.

Devices working on DLL are switch, Bridge, NIC.
Error detection will do by destination transport layer. Error correction
will do by source Transport layer.
DLL Header + Packet + DLL Tailor = frame.

Source MAC Destination MAC CRC (Cycle Reluctant check) value - Frame check sequence value

Physical Layer: It is responsible for Electrical, mechanical and procedural

checks. Data will be converted into binary. Data will be inform of electrical
pluses if it is coaxial or twisted pair cable and inform of light if it is fiber
optic cable.
Ex: - Hubs, Repeaters cables, Modems etc.

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