i) Operate within a limited geographic Area.
ii) Allow multi-access to high bandwidth media.
iii) Control the network privately under local admin.
iv) Provide full-time connectivity to local services.
i) Operate over a large geographic Area.
ii) Allow access over serial interfaces operating at lower speeds.
iii) Provide fulltime and part time connectivity.
iv) Connect devices separated over wide, even global Areas.
Physical topology: The layout of the physical cabling in a network.
Logical topology: The logical path of the signal as it travels through the
physical topology in a network.
In the late 1970\u2019s, the International Organization for Standardization to break this barrier created the OSI Open system Inter Connection model. The OSI model was helping vendors create interoperable network devices. The OSI model describes how data and network information are communicated from applications on one computer, through the network media, to an application on another computer.
Services are identified by using port no. Port nos are also called as entry and exit point to the layer. 0 \u2013 1023 are reserved port, 1024 \u2013 65535 open client ports.
PDU (Protocol Data Unit) application data: To communicate and exchange information, each layer uses. These holds the control information attached to the data at each layer of the model, which is typically attached to the header of the data field but can also be in the tailor or end of the data field.
format. Encoding, Encryption and compression will be done by source
presentation layer. Decompression, decryption and decoding done by
destination presentation layer.
Ex: - Text \u2013 ASCII, Graphic \u2013 BMP, Audio \u2013 WAV, Video \u2013 MPEG etc.
terminating the session. Session layer using session ID.
Ex: - RPC- Remote Procedure call, SQL- Sequence Query Language, NFS-
Network File System.
oriented; Acknowledgement; reliable; slower; Port no \u2013 6. It is slower because acknowledgement sent every request.
After receiving the segments the destination transport layer will identifying the missing segments and it will send the request to transport source layer. The source device working with IP only the missing segments transport from the source device. IPX will retransmit the whole message.
Before sending the data source PC will check with destination PC. How fast destination PC can receive the data by sending the dump packet. It is called as flow-control or windowing.
It is divided into two parts.
Routed Protocol. Ex: - IP, IPX, AppleTalk.
Routing Protocol. Ex: - RIP, IGRP, OSPF, and EIGRP.
(IP) Network Header + segment = packet
MAC (Media Access Control)
It talks about physical address. It is a 48-bit address. Ex: - 12 digit
Hex. It is also responsible for error detection.
Source MAC Destination MAC CRC (Cycle Reluctant check) value - Frame check sequence value
checks. Data will be converted into binary. Data will be inform of electrical
pluses if it is coaxial or twisted pair cable and inform of light if it is fiber
Ex: - Hubs, Repeaters cables, Modems etc.
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