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Water Analysis and Management for Fish Culture

Water Analysis and Management for Fish Culture

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Published by: api-3803371 on Dec 03, 2009
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03/18/2014

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Subhendu Datta
Senior Scientist
Salt Lake City, Kolkata
1

Water quality of any water body plays a very significant role in fish production. Analysis of water is extremely important for understanding the water fertility. Productivity of a water body is directly dependent on the physical and chemical parameters of water.

Colour

Water colour of a pond indicates the density of planktons. Phytoplankton or algae are green in colour. Brownish colouration without any foul smell is an indication of good growth of zooplankton. Phyto and zooplanktons serve as natural food for fishes. Clear and transparent water indicates very poor growth plankton and the water may be acidic. Brownish green to greenish brown colour of water is good for aquaculture (Pl. see the water colour in Fig. 2).

Temperature:

Fish production is influenced by temperature. Metabolic activity is doubled with every 100C rise in temperature. Optimum temperature for IMC culture: 15 -380C, for breeding 20 - 300C.

Collect water in a bucket few meters away from the dyke and 1.5-2 ft below the water surface. Record the temperature

with
a
centigrade
thermometer (Fig. 1).
Transparency:

It is the measure of light penetration in water and this is inversely proportional to the quantity of dispersed suspended particles in water i.e. turbidity. Ideal range of transparency: 20 - 40 cm. When transparency is more than 60 cm and turbidity is less than 30 ppm, poor growth plankton may occur and productivity will also be low. The observation should not be made early in the morning or

Fig. 1
2
late in the afternoon and record the observation through a
shaded area of water surface.

It can be measured well with Secchi disc, which is a metallic plate of 20 cm diameter with four alternate black and white quadrants on the upper surface and a hook at the center to tie a graduated rope.

Let down the disc from the water surface (Fig 2) and determine the point of disappearance as the disk is lowered (d1) (Fig. 3).

Allow it to drop a little further, and then determine the
point of reappearance as the disk is raised (d2).
The mean of these two readings [(d1+d2)/2] is taken as

the Secchi disk transparency.
Alternatively Fix a bright new pin at '0' (Zero) point on a
meter scale (Fig. 4)
Slowly dip it in water till the pin just disappears from the

sight and record the reading of scale at water surface
(Fig. 5).
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
pH:

It is an indication of acid or alkaline character and a vital index of productivity of water body. Below 7 is acidic while above 7 is basic. Optimum range for pH: 7.0-8.5.

A rough estimation can be made in a simple manner:
Dip pH paper in water sample (Fig. 6).
Compare colour so developed with standard colour
chart provided with the pH paper (Fig. 6).

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