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Handbook of Universal LiteratureFrom the Best and Latest Authorities by Botta, Anne C. Lynch

Handbook of Universal LiteratureFrom the Best and Latest Authorities by Botta, Anne C. Lynch

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Project Gutenberg's Handbook of Universal Literature, by Anne C. Lynch Botta

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**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts**
**eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971**
*****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!*****
Title: Handbook of Universal Literature

From The Best and Latest Authorities
Author: Anne C. Lynch Botta
Release Date: May, 2005 [EBook #8163]

[Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule]

[This file was first posted on June 23, 2003]
Edition: 10
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-Latin-1
*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HANDBOOK OF UNIVERSAL LITERATURE ***

Produced by Anne Soulard, Tiffany Vergon
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.
HANDBOOK OF UNIVERSAL LITERATURE
_FROM THE BEST AND LATEST AUTHORITIES_
BY
ANNE C. LYNCH BOTTA
PREFATORY NOTE TO THE REVISED EDITION.

Since the first publication of this work in 1860, many new names have
appeared in modern literature. Japan, hitherto almost unknown to
Europeans, has taken her place among the nations with a literature of her
own, and the researches and discoveries of scholars in various parts of
the world have thrown much light on the literatures of antiquity. To keep
pace with this advance, a new edition of the work has been called for.
Prefixed is a very brief summary of an important and exhaustive History of
the Alphabet recently published.

PREFACE.

This work was begun many years ago, as a literary exercise, to meet the
personal requirements of the writer, which were such as most persons
experience on leaving school and "completing their education," as the
phrase is. The world of literature lies before them, but where to begin,
what course of study to pursue, in order best to comprehend it, are the
problems which present themselves to the bewildered questioner, who finds
himself in a position not unlike that of a traveler suddenly set down in
an unknown country, without guide-book or map. The most natural course
under such circumstances would be to begin at the beginning, and take a
rapid survey of the entire field of literature, arriving at its details
through this general view. But as this could be accomplished only by
subjecting each individual to a severe and protracted course of systematic
study, the idea was conceived of obviating this necessity to some extent
by embodying the results of such a course in the form of the following
work, which, after being long laid aside, is now at length completed.

In conformity with this design, standard books have been condensed, with
no alterations except such as were required to give unity to the whole
work; and in some instances a few additions have been made. Where standard
works have not been found, the sketches have been made from the best
sources of information, and submitted to the criticism of able scholars.

The literatures of different nations are so related, and have so
influenced each other, that it is only by a survey of all that any single
literature, or even any great literary work, can be fully comprehended, as
the various groups and figures of a historical picture must be viewed as a
whole, before they can assume their true place and proportions.

A.C.L.B.
CONTENTS.
LIST OF AUTHORITIES
INTRODUCTION.

THE ALPHABET.
1. The Origin of Letters.--2. The Phoenician Alphabet and Inscriptions.--
3. The Greek Alphabet. Its Three Epochs.--4. The Mediaeval Scripts. The
Irish. The Anglo-Saxon. The Roman. The Gothic. The Runic.
CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES

CHINESE LITERATURE.
1. Chinese Literature.--2. The Language.--3. The Writing.--4. The Five
Classics and Four Books.--5. Chinese Religion and Philosophy. Lao-ts .
\ufffd
Confucius. Meng-ts or Mencius.--6. Buddhism.--7. Social Constitution of
\ufffd

China.--8. Invention of Printing.--9. Science, History, and Geography. Encyclopaedias.--10. Poetry.--11. Dramatic Literature and Fiction.--12. Education in China.

JAPANESE LITERATURE.

1. The Language.--2. The Religion.--3. The Literature. Influence of
Women.--4. History.--5. The Drama and Poetry.--6. Geography. Newspapers.
Novels. Medical Science.--7. Position of Woman.

SANSKRIT LITERATURE.

1. The Language.--2. The Social Constitution of India. Brahmanism.--3.
Characteristics of the Literature and its Divisions.--4. The Vedas and
other Sacred Books.--5. Sanskrit Poetry; Epic; the Ramayana and
Mahabharata. Lyric Poetry. Didactic Poetry; the Hitopadesa. Dramatic
Poetry.--6. History and Science.--7. Philosophy.--8. Buddhism.--9. Moral
Philosophy. The Code of Manu.--10. Modern Literatures of India.--11.
Education. The Brahmo Somaj.

BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN LITERATURE.
1. The Accadians and Babylonians.--2. The Cuneiform Letters.--3.

Babylonian and Assyrian Remains.
PHOENICIAN LITERATURE.
The Language.--The Remains.
SYRIAC LITERATURE.
The Language.--Influence of the Literature in the Eighth and Ninth

Century.
PERSIAN LITERATURE.

1. The Persian Language and its Divisions.--2. Zendic Literature; the
Zendavesta.--3. Pehlvi and Parsee Literatures.--4. The Ancient Religion of
Persia; Zoroaster.--5. Modern Literature.--6. The Sufis.--7. Persian
Poetry.--8. Persian Poets; Ferdusi; Eesedi of Tus; Togray, etc.--9.
History and Philosophy.--10. Education in Persia.

HEBREW LITERATURE.
1. Hebrew Literature; its Divisions.--2. The Language; its Alphabet; its
Structure; Peculiarities, Formation, and Phases.--3. The Old Testament.--

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