computing continues and there are three possible outcomes possible
. Loopingsimply means that the machine won¶t halt. The output is obtained when the machine enters the designatedaccepting and rejecting states or else it will go on forever without halting. One major problem faced inturing machine is that we cannot distinguish between looping and merely taking long time to execute. For this, turing machines are made so that they halt on all inputs. Such turing machines are called
because they always make a decision to accept or reject.
taken by the turing machine at any time is a function of the present state of finite control andthe symbol scanned from the tape. When a move occurs the following may take place:
hange State (sometimes retain the current state)
Write a symbol on cell scanned (sometimes retain the current symbol)
ove the tape head left or right (if the tape head is not required to move by the turing machinelogic, it can be stationary. But a move will be formally accepted if the head moves. So a move isdefined when the head moves, then previous moves are combined with the present move into asingle move)
A Turing machine (T
) can be formally notated similar to a finite automata or PDA. A T
can bedescribed by a 7-tuple:
= (Q, , , , q
, B, F)where,Q : The finite set of states of the finite control : The finite set of input symbols. : The complete set of tape symbols. is subset of . : The transition function.(q, X) = (p, Y, D)
q is a current state which is a member of Q.
X is a tape symbol which is a member of .
p is the next state which is a member of Q.
Y is a symbol in replacing the previous state symbol.
D is direction in which the head moves and can be L or R (left/right)q
: The start state of finite control which is a member on Q.B : The blank symbol which is in but not in .F : The set of final (accepting) states which is a subset of Q.
onventions for Representation
Lower case letters at the beginning of alphabet are used to represent input symbols. eg: a,b,c
Lower case letters from the end of alphabet are used to represent the strings of input symbols. eg:w,x
apital letters from the end of alphabet are used for tape symbols. eg: X1, X2, B (blank)
reek alphabets are used to represent tape strings.eg: ,
Letters p, q and nearby are used for states.