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iParadigms 03-11-08 Opinion

iParadigms 03-11-08 Opinion

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Published by plagiarismtoday
The opinion in the latest iParadigms Case
The opinion in the latest iParadigms Case

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Published by: plagiarismtoday on Mar 25, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/08/2014

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INTHEUNITED
STATES
DISTRICT
COURT
__._
FORTHEEASTERNDISTRICT
OF
VIRGINIA
hjfi-.
~:
r
-
""T^
AlexandriaDivision
A.V.,
etaJU,
)
Plaintiffs,
)
v.
)
Civil
Action
No.
07-0293
IPARADIGMS,
LIMITEDLIABILITY
)
COMPANY,
)
Defendant.
)
)
MEMORANDUMOPINION
This
matter
comes
before
theCourt
on
Plaintiffs'
Motion
for
Summary
Judgment
andDefendant'sMotion
for
Summary
Judgment.Plaintiffs,four
minorhigh
schoolstudents,havefiled
a
complaint
against
Defendant
iParadigms,LLC
allegingcopyright
infringement
basedon
iParadigms'digital
archiving
of
Plaintiffs'
copyrighted
materials.
iParadigms
has
filed
a
counterclaimseekingindemnificationagainst
allPlaintiffs.iParadigms'
counterclaimalso
alleges,
as
against
Plaintiff
A.V.,
(1)
trespass
to
chattels,
(2)
violation
ofthe
Computer
FraudandAbuse
Act,
18
U.S.C.
§§
1030(a)
(5)(A)
(iii)
and
1030(a)
(5)(B)
(I)
and
(3)
violation
of
the
VirginiaComputer
Crimes
Act,Va.
Code.
§§
18.2-152.3and
18.2-152.6.
DefendantiParadigms
owns
andoperates
Turnitin,
a
proprietarytechnologysystem
that
evaluates
the
originality
of
 
written
works
in
order
to
prevent
plagiarism.Educational
institutionscontract
with
iParadigmsand
require
theirstudents
to
submittheir
writtenworksvia
Turnitin.
When
the
student
work
is
submitted
to
Turnitin,
the
systemcompares
the
work
electronically
to
content
availableon
the
internet,
student
works
previouslysubmitted
to
Turnitin
andcommercialdatabases
of
journalarticles
and
periodicals.
Turnitin
thenproduces
an
Originality
Reportfor
each
submitted
work,
which
indicateswhether
a
student's
paper
is
notoriginal.The
teacher
then
evaluates
the
Originality
Reportand
decideswhether
to
addressanyissues
with
thestudent.
Uponrequest
to
Turnitin,
the
teacher
can
obtain,
for
comparison
purposes,copies
of
archivedworks
whichappear
tobe
plagiarizedby
thestudent.
Turnitin
alsohas
the
ability
to
archive
a
student's
workupon
its
submission
to
Turnitin.
This
allows
Turnitin's
database
to
growwith
eachstudent
work
submitted.However,
this
featuremust
be
specificallyauthorized
by
the
school
district
in
order
to
allow
Turnitin
to
archive
the
student-submitted
works.
Over
7,000educational
institutions
worldwide
useTurnitin,resulting
in
the
daily
submission
of
over100,000works
toTurnitin.
In
order
to
submit
a
paper
to
Turnitin,
a
studentmust
first
registerbycreating
a
profile
on
the
Turnitin
web
site.
The
finalstep
in
the
profile
creationprocessrequires
thatthe
studentclick
"I
Agree"
totheterms
of
the"user
agreement"
 
(also
referred
toas
the
"ClickwrapAgreement")which
is
displayeddirectly
abovethe
"I
agree"linkthat
the
studentmust
click.The
Clickwrap
Agreement
states:
"Turnitinand
its
servicesare
maintainedby
iParadigms,
LLC
["Licensor"],
and
are
offered
to
you,
the
user
["User"](
conditionedonyour
acceptance
withoutmodification
of
theterms,
conditions,
and
notices
contained
herein."
(emphasis
added).
The
ClickwrapAgreement
alsocontains
a
limitation
of
liability
clause:
Inno
eventshalliParadigms,LLC
and/or
its
suppliers
be
liable
for
any
direct,
indirect,
punitive,incidental,
special,or
consequential
damages
arising
out
oforin
any
wayconnectedwith
the
use
of
this
web
site
or
with
the
delay
or
inability
to
use
this
web
site,
orfor
any
information,software,products,andservices
obtained
through
this
web
site,
or
otherwisearising
out
of
the
use
ofthis
web
site,
whetherbased
incontract,
tort,
strict
liability
or
otherwise,
even
if
iParadigms,
inc.
or
any
ofits
suppliers
has
beenadvised
ofthe
possibility
of
damages.
(emphasis
added).
At
the
time
of
the
filing
ofthe
complaint,Plaintiffs
attended
highschool
in
Virginia,
inthe
FairfaxCounty
Public
Schools
("FCPS")
system,
and
in
Arizona,inthe
TucsonUnified
SchoolDistrict
("TUSD").
Both
schoolsystems
contractedwith
iParadigms
to
utilize
iParadigms'
Turnitintechnologysystem
and
bothauthorizedTurnitin
toarchive
student-submitted
work.
According
to
schooladministrators,
plagiarismhadbecome
a
major
problem
in
eachschool
district
and
Turnitin
was
employed
in
aneffort
to
decreaseplagiarism
in
theirschools.
Both
school

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