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Historia e filozofisë islame I-II - Henry Corbin

Historia e filozofisë islame I-II - Henry Corbin

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HISTORIA
E
FILOZOFIS\u00cb
ISLAME

I -II
Henry Corbin
2PARATH\u00cbNIE

Disa gj\u00ebra jan\u00eb t\u00eb nevojshme t\u00eb thuhen p\u00ebr arsye t\u00eb sqarimit t\u00eb titullit dhe struktur\u00ebs s\u00eb k\u00ebtij
studimi, p\u00ebr t\u00eb cilin nuk kemi pasur shum\u00eb pararend\u00ebs q\u00eb do t\u00eb na hapnin rrug\u00ebn.
1. S\u00eb pari, flasim p\u00ebr \u201cfilozofin\u00eb islame\u201d e jo p\u00ebr \u201cfilozofin\u00eb arabe\u201d, si\u00e7 ka qen\u00eb tradit\u00eb gjat\u00eb
koh\u00eb duke filluar q\u00eb nga Mesjeta. Gjithsesi, Pejgamberi islam qe arab i Arabis\u00eb; gjuha letrare
arabe \u00ebsht\u00eb gjuha e Shpalljes (Revelat\u00ebs) kur\u2019anore, gjuha e namazit, gjuh\u00eb dhe mjet konceptual
me t\u00eb cilin arab\u00ebt dhe ata q\u00eb nuk ishin arab\u00eb, u sh\u00ebrbyen p\u00ebr krijimin e nj\u00ebr\u00ebs prej let\u00ebrsive m\u00eb
t\u00eb pasura n\u00eb bot\u00eb - asaj n\u00eb t\u00eb cil\u00ebn shprehet kultura islame. Por, megjithat\u00eb, dometh\u00ebnia e simboleve
etnike nd\u00ebrrohet gjat\u00eb koh\u00ebs. Sot shprehja \u201carabe\u201d lidhet, n\u00eb p\u00ebrdorimin e r\u00ebndomt\u00eb sikur
edhe n\u00eb at\u00eb zyrtar, krahas konceptit sakt\u00eb t\u00eb caktuar etnik, nacional dhe politik, q\u00eb nuk bie ndesh
as me konceptin religjioz \u201cIslam\u201d e as me kufijt\u00eb e hap\u00ebsir\u00ebs s\u00eb tij. Populli arab ose popujt e
arabizuar madje jan\u00eb vet\u00ebm nj\u00eb pjes\u00eb e vog\u00ebl e t\u00ebr\u00ebsis\u00eb s\u00eb bot\u00ebs muslimane. Karakteri bot\u00ebror i
konceptit fetar \u201cIslam\u201d nuk mund as t\u00eb transmetohet e as t\u00eb kufizohet n\u00eb suazat e nj\u00eb koncepti
etnik apo nacional profan. Kjo \u00ebsht\u00eb vetvetiu e kuptueshme p\u00ebr \u00e7dok\u00eb q\u00eb ka jetuar n\u00eb vendin
joarab islam.
Natyrisht ka mundur, kurse edhe do t\u00eb mund t\u00eb miratohej q\u00eb em\u00ebrtimin \u201cfilozofia arabe\u201d
thjesht\u00eb duhet kuptuar si em\u00ebrtim i filozofis\u00eb s\u00eb shkruar n\u00eb gjuh\u00ebn arabe, d.m.th. n\u00eb at\u00eb arabishte
letrare q\u00eb deri m\u00eb sot \u00ebsht\u00eb lidhje rituale si nd\u00ebrmjet an\u00ebtar\u00ebve joarab\u00eb t\u00eb bashk\u00ebsis\u00eb islame,
ashtu edhe midis pjes\u00ebve t\u00eb kombit arab, ku \u00e7do pjes\u00eb ve\u00e7ohet me dialektin e vet arab. Fatkeq\u00ebsisht,
ky p\u00ebrcaktim \u201clinguistik\u201d nuk \u00ebsht\u00eb i p\u00ebrshtatsh\u00ebm e as adekuat. N\u00ebse do t\u00eb niseshim
prej tij, do t\u00eb ishim n\u00eb hamendje n\u00eb aspektin e klasifikimit t\u00eb mendimtar\u00ebve iranian\u00eb, sikur q\u00eb
jan\u00eb filozofi ismailit Nasir-i Husrevi (shekulli XI) apo Efdaluddin Kashaniu (shekulli XIII),
nx\u00ebn\u00ebs i Nasiruddin Tusiut, veprat e t\u00eb cilit n\u00eb t\u00ebr\u00ebsi jan\u00eb shkruar n\u00eb gjuh\u00ebn persishte - e t\u00eb mos
flasim p\u00ebr t\u00eb gjith\u00eb ata q\u00eb, prej Avicen\u00ebs (Ibn Sinas\u00eb) dhe Suhraverdiut e deri te Mir Damadi
(shekulli XVII), Hadi Sabzavariu (shekulli XIX) dhe bashk\u00ebkoh\u00ebsit tan\u00eb, kan\u00eb shkruar her\u00eb n\u00eb
gjuh\u00ebn persishte e her\u00eb n\u00eb gjuh\u00ebn letrare arabe. Vet\u00eb persishtja gjithnj\u00eb ka luajtur rolin e gjuh\u00ebs
s\u00eb kultur\u00ebs (p\u00ebr m\u00eb tep\u00ebr \u201ct\u00eb gjuh\u00ebs rituale\u201d te ismailit\u00ebt pamirian\u00eb, p\u00ebr shembull). Pos k\u00ebsaj,
n\u00ebse \u00ebsht\u00eb e sakt\u00eb se disa trajtesa t\u00eb Descartesit, Spinoz\u00ebs, Kantit dhe Hegelit jan\u00eb shkruar n\u00eb
latinishte, autor\u00ebt e tyre megjithat\u00eb nuk jan\u00eb filozof\u00eb \u201clatin\u00eb\u201d apo \u201croman\u00eb\u201d.
Q\u00eb t\u00eb p\u00ebrcaktohet bota ideore p\u00ebr t\u00eb cil\u00ebn do t\u00eb diskutohet n\u00eb faqet vijuese, duhet pra gjetur
em\u00ebrtimin q\u00eb \u00ebsht\u00eb mjaft i gjer\u00eb p\u00ebr ruajtjen e karakterit bot\u00ebror t\u00eb konceptit \u201cIslam\u201d n\u00eb kuptimin
shpirt\u00ebror, i cili nj\u00ebkoh\u00ebsisht ruan konceptin \u201carab\u201d n\u00eb lart\u00ebsin\u00eb e horizontit pejgamberik
n\u00eb t\u00eb cilin \u00ebsht\u00eb paraqitur ai n\u00eb histori me Shpalljen kur\u2019anore. Duke mos i vler\u00ebsuar a priori
mendimet ose \u201cdrejtbesimin\u201d q\u00eb e sjellin n\u00eb pyetje cil\u00ebsin\u00eb \u201cmuslimane\u201d t\u00eb k\u00ebtij apo t\u00eb atij filozofi,
do t\u00eb flasim p\u00ebr \u201cfilozofin\u00eb islame\u201d si p\u00ebr filozofin\u00eb, zhvillimi dhe modalitetet e s\u00eb cil\u00ebs
jan\u00eb thelb\u00ebsisht t\u00eb lidhura p\u00ebr Islamin si fakt religjioz dhe shpirt\u00ebror -I sl ami n, dhe e cila konfirmon
se Islami nuk shprehet as adekuat e as vendosm\u00ebrisht, si\u00e7 thuhet kjo gabimisht, vet\u00ebm n\u00eb
t\u00eb drejt\u00ebn kanonike (fikh).
2. Prandaj, koncepti i filozofis\u00eb islame nuk mund t\u00eb redukohet n\u00eb skem\u00ebn kaher\u00eb t\u00eb tradicionalizuar
n\u00eb doracak\u00ebt tan\u00eb t\u00eb historis\u00eb s\u00eb filozofis\u00eb, q\u00eb p\u00ebrmend vet\u00ebm disa emra t\u00eb m\u00ebdhenj,
emra t\u00eb mendimtar\u00ebve islam\u00eb t\u00eb njohur n\u00eb p\u00ebrkthimin latin t\u00eb skolastik\u00ebs son\u00eb mesjetare.
Natyrisht, p\u00ebrkthimet e veprave arabe n\u00eb latinishte n\u00eb Toledo dhe n\u00eb Sicili, kan\u00eb qen\u00eb episod

3mjaft i r\u00ebnd\u00ebsish\u00ebm kulturor, por ai \u00ebsht\u00eb fare i pamjaftuesh\u00ebm p\u00ebr arritjen e orientimit t\u00eb

t\u00ebr\u00ebsish\u00ebm, q\u00eb lejon zbulimin e drejtimit dhe zhvillimit t\u00eb meditimit filozofik n\u00eb Islam. \u00cbsht\u00eb
plot\u00ebsisht e pav\u00ebrtet\u00eb se ajo u p\u00ebrmbyll me vdekjen e Averroesit (Ibn Rushdit) (1198), kurse p\u00ebr
at\u00eb se \u00e7ka n\u00eb t\u00eb v\u00ebrtet\u00eb u p\u00ebrmbyll me k\u00ebt\u00eb vdekje, do t\u00eb p\u00ebrpiqemi t\u00eb japim sh\u00ebnime m\u00eb von\u00eb,
n\u00eb fund t\u00eb pjes\u00ebs I t\u00eb k\u00ebtij studimi. Me an\u00eb t\u00eb p\u00ebrkthimit n\u00eb latinishte, vepra e filozofit nga Kordova
ka rezultuar n\u00eb Per\u00ebndim averroizmin, q\u00eb t\u00ebr\u00ebsisht e zbrapsi at\u00eb q\u00eb quhej \u201cavicenizmi
latin\u201d. N\u00eb Lindje, ve\u00e7an n\u00eb Iran, averroizmi ka kaluar pa u v\u00ebrejtur, nd\u00ebrsa kritika e Gazaliut
filozofis\u00eb kurr\u00eb nuk \u00ebsht\u00eb konsideruar si fund i tradit\u00ebs q\u00eb fillon me Avicen\u00ebn.
3. Dometh\u00ebnia dhe vazhdim\u00ebsia e meditimit filozofik n\u00eb Islam munden, nj\u00ebmend, t\u00eb kuptohen
vet\u00ebm me kusht q\u00eb t\u00eb mos synohet t\u00eb gjendet n\u00eb t\u00eb me \u00e7do kusht ekuivalenti ekzakt i asaj q\u00eb
n\u00eb Per\u00ebndim tashm\u00eb me shekuj e quajm\u00eb \u201cfilozofi\u201d. Madje as shprehjetf el sefe dhef ej l esuf q\u00eb
jan\u00eb krijuar me transkribimin e shprehjeve greke n\u00eb arabishte, e q\u00eb kan\u00eb t\u00eb b\u00ebjn\u00eb me peripatetik\u00ebt
dhe neoplatonist\u00ebt e shekujve t\u00eb par\u00eb t\u00eb Islamit, nuk e kan\u00eb vler\u00ebn plot\u00ebsisht t\u00eb nj\u00ebjt\u00eb si

nocionet tona \u201cfilozofia\u201d dhe \u201cfilozofi\u201d. Dallimi qart\u00eb i t\u00ebrhequr nd\u00ebrmjet \u201cfilozofis\u00eb\u201d dhe
\u201cteologjis\u00eb\u201d,

n\u00eb Per\u00ebndim shtrihet mbrapa deri te skolastika mesjetare. Ajo parashtron \u201cprofanizmin\u201d
i cili n\u00eb Islam nuk do t\u00eb mund t\u00eb paraqitej pik\u00ebs\u00ebpari p\u00ebr at\u00eb se Feja islame nuk di p\u00ebr
fenomenin e Kish\u00ebs, me implikacionet dhe pasojat e tij.
Si\u00e7 do t\u00eb tregohet holl\u00ebsisht n\u00eb faqet vijuese, shprehjahi kme \u00ebsht\u00eb ekuivalent i shprehjes
grekesophi a; shprehjahi kme i l ahi jj e \u00ebsht\u00eb ekuivalent i fjal\u00ebp\u00ebrfjalsh\u00ebm i shprehjes greketheosophi a.
P\u00ebr metafizik\u00ebn p\u00ebrgjith\u00ebsisht konsiderohet se flet p\u00ebril ahij j at, p\u00ebrdi vi nali a. Shprehja

ilm ilahi(scientia divina) nuk mund, por edhe nuk guxon t\u00eb p\u00ebrkthehet me shprehjen \u201cteodicea\u201d.

At\u00eb q\u00eb historian\u00ebt musliman\u00eb (prej Shahristanit n\u00eb shekullin XII e deri te Kutbuddin Ashkivariu
n\u00eb shekullin XVII) e kan\u00eb menduar p\u00ebr \u201cdijetar\u00ebt grek\u00eb\u201d, \u00ebsht\u00eb se urtia e tyre rrjedh nga
\u201cThell\u00ebsia e drit\u00ebs s\u00eb profecis\u00eb\u201d. Ja p\u00ebrse, n\u00ebse k\u00ebnaqemi me at\u00eb q\u00eb \u00e7\u00ebshtjen e raportit nd\u00ebrmjet
filozofis\u00eb dhe fes\u00eb ta transmetojm\u00eb n\u00eb Islam ashtu si\u00e7 \u00ebsht\u00eb shtruar ajo tradicionalisht n\u00eb
Per\u00ebndim, pyetja n\u00eb themel gabimisht shtrohet meq\u00eb at\u00ebher\u00eb p\u00ebrfshijm\u00eb vet\u00ebm nj\u00eb pjes\u00eb t\u00eb
situat\u00ebs. Filozofia n\u00eb Islam, n\u00eb t\u00eb v\u00ebrtet\u00eb ka p\u00ebrjetuar disa situata t\u00eb r\u00ebnda, por v\u00ebshtir\u00ebsit\u00eb kan\u00eb
qen\u00eb tjet\u00ebrfare nga ato n\u00eb Krishterim. Hulumtimi filozofik (tahkik) n\u00eb Islam ishte \u201cn\u00eb sht\u00ebpi\u201d
vet\u00ebm atje ku mendohej p\u00ebr faktin themelor t\u00eb profecis\u00eb dhe t\u00eb Shpalljes profetike, me problemet

hermeneutike dhe situat\u00ebn q\u00eb ky fakt themelor i n\u00ebnkupton. Filozofia, at\u00ebher\u00eb, paraqitet n\u00eb
trajt\u00ebn e \u201cfilozofis\u00eb profetike\u201d. Pik\u00ebrisht p\u00ebr k\u00ebt\u00eb n\u00eb k\u00ebt\u00eb studim ia kemi dh\u00ebn\u00eb vendin fillestar
filozofis\u00eb profetike t\u00eb shiizmit n\u00eb dy format e saj kryesore: imamizmin duodecimalist dhe

ismailizmin.
Hulumtimet m\u00eb t\u00eb reja q\u00eb u p\u00ebrkasin t\u00eb dy formave ende nuk jan\u00eb rezimuar n\u00eb asnj\u00eb
punim t\u00eb k\u00ebtij lloji. T\u00eb dh\u00ebnat nuk i kemi k\u00ebrkuar te \u201chereziograf\u00ebt\u201d. Iu rrek\u00ebm vet\u00eb burimeve.
Prandaj,hi kme n\u00eb Islam nuk do t\u00eb mund t\u00eb shtrohej po t\u00eb mos diskutohej p\u00ebr mistik\u00ebn
d.m.th. p\u00ebr sufizmin n\u00eb aspektet e tij t\u00eb ndryshme, si p\u00ebr aspektet e p\u00ebrvoj\u00ebs s\u00eb tij shpirt\u00ebrore
ashtu edhe p\u00ebr aspektet e teozofis\u00eb s\u00eb tij spekulative, e cila z\u00eb rr\u00ebnj\u00eb n\u00eb ezoterizmin shi\u2019it. Si\u00e7
do t\u00eb tregohet, p\u00ebrpjekja e nj\u00eb Suhraverdiu, kurse pas tij edhe e t\u00ebr\u00eb shkoll\u00ebs s\u00ebis hr aki - filozof\u00ebve,
mb\u00ebshtetet n\u00eb g\u00ebrshetimin e hulumtimit filozofik dhe ngritjes personale shpirt\u00ebrore. Posa\u00e7\u00ebrisht
n\u00eb Islam historia e filozofis\u00eb dhe historia e spiritualitetit nuk mund t\u00eb ndahen.
4. Kemi qen\u00eb t\u00eb shtr\u00ebnguar q\u00eb k\u00ebt\u00eb studim ta redukojm\u00eb n\u00eb suaza t\u00eb ngushta. Nuk kemi patur

mund\u00ebsi q\u00eb ekspozimit t\u00eb disa problemeve, te disa mendimtar\u00eb, t\u2019i p\u00ebrkushtojm\u00eb hap\u00ebsir\u00ebn e

nevojshme.
Mir\u00ebpo, meq\u00eb m\u00eb s\u00eb shpeshti kemi t\u00eb b\u00ebjm\u00eb me doktrinat fare pak t\u00eb njohura, n\u00ebse jo
edhe plot\u00ebsisht t\u00eb panjohura, dhe pasi q\u00eb faqet vijuese jan\u00eb t\u00eb shkruara, thjesht p\u00ebr filozofin e jo
vet\u00ebm p\u00ebr orientalistin, s\u2019kemi mundur t\u00eb k\u00ebnaqemi me aludime, e as t\u00eb kufizohemi n\u00eb sh\u00ebnime
t\u00eb thjeshta enciklopedike. Konsiderojm\u00eb se kemi th\u00ebn\u00eb minimumin e domosdosh\u00ebm.
Natyrisht q\u00eb skema tradicionale e cila historin\u00eb e filozofis\u00eb, sikur edhe historin\u00eb
p\u00ebrgjith\u00ebsisht i ndan\u00eb n\u00eb tri periudha: koha e vjet\u00ebr, koha e mesme dhe koha e re, ka mundur
vet\u00ebm formalisht t\u00eb aplikohet n\u00eb periodizimin e historis\u00eb s\u00eb filozofis\u00eb islame. Nj\u00ebjt\u00eb nuk do t\u00eb
vlente t\u00eb thuhet se Mesjeta zgjat\u00eb deri m\u00eb sot, sepse vet\u00eb nocioni i Mesjet\u00ebs parashtron t\u00eb kuptuarit
e historis\u00eb s\u00eb tematizuar n\u00eb baz\u00eb t\u00eb ndonj\u00eb situate t\u00eb dh\u00ebn\u00eb. P\u00ebr karakterizimin e nj\u00eb \u201ctipi t\u00eb
mendimit\u201d ekzistojn\u00eb tregues m\u00eb serioz\u00eb dhe m\u00eb t\u00eb q\u00ebndruesh\u00ebm se q\u00eb jan\u00eb referencat e thjeshta
kronologjike, nd\u00ebrsa n\u00eb Islam ekzistojn\u00eb disa tipe t\u00eb diferencuara t\u00eb mendimit q\u00eb vazhdimisht

4ekzistojn\u00eb prej fillimeve t\u00eb tij e deri m\u00eb sot. Ngaq\u00eb, p\u00ebrpjekja q\u00eb t\u00eb periodizohen disa mendimtar\u00eb

islam\u00eb \u00ebsht\u00eb konkretizuar n\u00eb nj\u00eb skem\u00eb q\u00eb \u00ebsht\u00eb karakteristike (kurse nuk \u00ebsht\u00eb e huaj as
p\u00ebr percepcionet e tyre mbi ciklet e profecis\u00eb). Kutbuddin Ashkivariu, p\u00ebr shembull, e ndan historin\u00eb
e tij t\u00eb mendimtar\u00ebve dhe t\u00eb njer\u00ebzve t\u00eb urt\u00eb n\u00eb tre cikle t\u00eb m\u00ebdha: mendimtar\u00ebt paraislam\u00eb,
mendimtar\u00ebt islam\u00eb sunnit\u00eb dhe mendimtar\u00ebt islam\u00eb shi\u2019it\u00eb.
Por, ne nuk mund t\u2019i inkuadrojm\u00eb me forc\u00eb n\u00eb skem\u00ebn e nj\u00eb periodizimi t\u00eb sjellur nga jasht.
Do t\u2019i dallojm\u00eb tri periudhat e m\u00ebdha vijuese:
a) Periudha e par\u00eb shtrihet prej fillimeve e deri n\u00eb vdekjen e Ibn Rushdit (Averroes) (595-
1198). N\u00eb disa aspekte t\u00eb veta, kjo periudh\u00eb deri m\u00eb sot ka qen\u00eb m\u00eb s\u00eb paku e panjohur. M\u00eb p\u00ebr
s\u00eb af\u00ebrmi do t\u00eb konfirmohet kur t\u00eb vihet deri te fundi i saj, p\u00ebrse \u00ebsht\u00eb imponuar zgjedhja e k\u00ebtij
klasifikimi. Me Averroesin di\u00e7ka edhe u p\u00ebrmbyll n\u00eb Islamin per\u00ebndimor. Nj\u00ebkoh\u00ebsisht,
Suhraverdiu dhe Ibn Arabiu fillojn\u00eb di\u00e7 t\u00eb re q\u00eb n\u00eb Lindje do t\u00eb q\u00ebndroj\u00eb deri m\u00eb sot.

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