Table 1: Subregions and Countries Subregion Countries
Central Asia Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan North East Asia China, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Mongolia South Asia Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Turkey South East Asia Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam Pacific Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
Note: China includes Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative Regions and Taiwan Province of China.
The region has enjoyed economic growth for the last four decades. In the course of economic development, however, rich natural resources have been degraded and the total number of poor people has increased. APFED has identified the key social and economic factors upon which future directions of sustainable development of the region depend, and the status and perspectives of these factors are outlined below. They include population and urbanisation (population trends, urban population and urbanisation, rural-urban migration, urban poverty, and transforming demographic structures); economic development (growing and transforming economies, economic globalisation and its impacts, rural-urban gaps, energy sources and availability, and production and consumption); major social concerns (poverty, nutrition and health, education and gender discrimination, social cohesion, conflicts, and corruption); and technological development (technological innovation, information and communication technologies, biotechnologies, energy technologies, and cleaner production technologies).
A. Population and Urbanisation
Approximately 3.5 billion people, 58% of the world’s population, live in Asia and the Pacific
, an area accounting for only about 30% of the Earth’s land space. Several of the most populous countries in the world are found in the region, including China with 1.3 billion people and India with 1.2 billion
, together accounting for almost 40% of the world’s population. Five of the six countries that account for half of the global annual population growth belong to the region, namely Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. According to population projections by the United Nations
, a constant increase in population is expected in all subregions; total population will increase by approximately 700 million in the region between 2000 and 2015, as indicated in Figure 1. The largest increase in population is expected in the relatively poor economies of South Asia, where the total population will increase by 300 million by 2015, and 600 million by 2030.
UN-ESCAP, Population Data Sheet 2003 (http://www.unescap.org/pop/data_sheet/2003/index.asp)
Population in mid-2003. UN-ESCAP Population Data Sheet 2003 (http://www.unescap.org/pop/data_sheet/2003/index.asp)
United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects, The 2002 Revision