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BEST PRACTICE MANUAL-FLUID PIPING

BEST PRACTICE MANUAL-FLUID PIPING

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BEST PRACTICE MANUAL
FFLLUUIIDDPPIIPPIINNGGSSYYSSTTEEMMSS 
Prepared for 
Bureau of Energy Efficiency,
(under Ministry of Power, Government of India)Hall no.4, 2
nd
Floor, NBCC Tower,Bhikaji Cama Place,New Delhi – 110066.
Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency,
Core 4A, East Court,1
st
Floor, India Habitat Centre,Lodhi Road,New Delhi – 110003
.
By 
Devki Energy Consultancy Pvt. Ltd.,
405, Ivory Terrace, R.C. Dutt Road,Vadodara – 390007, India.
2006
 
2
CONTENTS
 1
 
INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................................................4
 1.1 B
ACKGROUND
........................................................................................................................................................4
2
 
FUNDAMENTALS..........................................................................................................................................................5
 2.1 P
HYSICAL
P
ROPERTIES OF
F
LUIDS
...........................................................................................................................52.2 T
YPES OF
F
LUID
F
LOW
:...........................................................................................................................................52.3 P
RESSURE
L
OSS IN
P
IPES
.......................................................................................................................................62.4 S
TANDARD
P
IPE DIMENSIONS
..................................................................................................................................82.5 P
RESSURE DROP IN COMPONENTS IN PIPE SYSTEMS
..................................................................................................82.6 V
ALVES
.................................................................................................................................................................9
3
 
COMPRESSED AIR PIPING.........................................................................................................................................13
 3.1 I
NTRODUCTION
.....................................................................................................................................................133.2 P
IPING MATERIALS
................................................................................................................................................133.3 C
OMPRESSOR
D
ISCHARGE
P
IPING
.........................................................................................................................133.4 P
RESSURE
D
ROP
.................................................................................................................................................143.5 P
IPING SYSTEM
D
ESIGN
........................................................................................................................................153.6 C
OMPRESSED
A
IR LEAKAGE
..................................................................................................................................163.7 L
EAKAGE REDUCTION
............................................................................................................................................17
4
 
STEAM DISTRIBUTION...............................................................................................................................................19
 4.1 I
NTRODUCTION
.....................................................................................................................................................194.2 E
NERGY
C
ONSIDERATIONS
....................................................................................................................................194.3 S
ELECTION OF PIPE SIZE
.......................................................................................................................................204.4 P
IPING
I
NSTALLATION
............................................................................................................................................23
5
 
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM...............................................................................................................................24
 5.1 R
ECOMMENDED
V
ELOCITIES
..................................................................................................................................245.2 R
ECOMMENDED WATER FLOW VELOCITY ON SUCTION SIDE OF PUMP
.........................................................................25
6
 
THERMAL INSULATION..............................................................................................................................................26
 6.1 I
NTRODUCTION
.....................................................................................................................................................266.2 H
EAT
L
OSSES FROM
P
IPE SURFACES
.....................................................................................................................276.3 C
ALCULATION OF
I
NSULATION
T
HICKNESS
..............................................................................................................276.4 I
NSULATION MATERIAL
...........................................................................................................................................296.5 R
ECOMMENDED VALUES OF COLD AND HOT INSULATION
...........................................................................................306.6 E
CONOMIC THICKNESS OF INSULATION
...................................................................................................................31
7
 
CASE STUDIES...........................................................................................................................................................34
 7.1 P
RESSURE DROP REDUCTION IN WATER PUMPING
...................................................................................................347.2 P
RESSURE DROP REDUCTION IN
C
OMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM
.....................................................................................357.3 R
EPLACEMENT OF
G
LOBE
V
ALVES WITH
B
UTTERFLY
V
ALVES
...................................................................................357.4 R
EDUCTION IN PRESSURE DROP IN THE COMPRESSED AIR NETWORK
........................................................................367.5 T
HERMAL INSULATION IN
S
TEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
...........................................................................................377.6 C
OMPRESSED
A
IR
L
EAKAGE
R
EDUCTION AT
H
EAVY
E
NGINEERING
P
LANT
.................................................................377.7 R
EDUCING
S
TEAM
H
EADER
P
RESSURE
..................................................................................................................387.8 I
NSULATION OF STEAM PIPELINES
...........................................................................................................................397.9 C
OOLING WATER PIPING SYSTEM MODIFICATION TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY
............................................................407.10 E
XCESSIVE PRESSURE DROP DUE TO INADEQUATE PIPING
-
CHILLED WATER SYSTEM
...................................................40
ANNEXURE-1: REFERENCES...............................................................................................................................................43
 
List of Figures
Figure 2-1: Estimation of friction factor 
...................................................................................................................7
Figure 3-1: Pressure drop calculations 
.................................................................................................................15
Figure 3-2: Types o piping layout 
..........................................................................................................................16
Figure 4-1: Steam pipe sizing 
...............................................................................................................................21
Figure 6-1: Economic insulation thickness 
............................................................................................................26
Figure 6-2: Insulated pipe section 
.........................................................................................................................28
Table 6-3: Thermal conductivity of hot insulation 
..................................................................................................29
Figure 7-1: Chilled water system piping schematic 
...............................................................................................34
Figure 7-2: Compressed air system piping schematic 
..........................................................................................35
Figure 7-3: Pressure drop of Globe & Butterfly Valves 
.........................................................................................36
Figure 7-4: Chiller performance 
............................................................................................................................41
 
3
List of Tables
Table 2-1: Minor loss coefficients 
........................................................................................................................................9
Table 3-1: Cost of Compressed Air Leakage 
...................................................................................................................18
Table 4-1: Recommended pipe sizes for steam 
..............................................................................................................22
Table 5-1: Recommended velocities 
.................................................................................................................................24
Table 5-2:Calculation of System Head Requirement for a Cooling Application (for different pipe sizes)
................24
Table 5-3: Recommended suction velocities 
...................................................................................................................25
Table 6-1: Heat loss from Fluid inside Pipe (W/m)
..........................................................................................................27
Table 6-2: Coefficients A, B for estimating ‘h’ (in W/m 
-K)
.............................................................................................28
Table 6-3: Insulation thickness for refrigeration systems 
...............................................................................................30
Table 6-4Recommended Thickness of Insulation (inches)
............................................................................................31
Table 6-5: Economic insulation thickness calculations 
...................................................................................................32

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