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The observable physical properties of different substances are related to the interactions among its particles and these, on turn, depend on the kind of substance we are dealing with (ionic, metallic, molecular, etc). It can be stated roughly that non metals bond
The question arises: why should atoms form molecules or ions? The answer to this question was proposed by Lewis with his \u201crule of eight\u201d or \u201ccomplete outer shell rule\u201d. This rule has a solid theoretical background that goes far beyond the high school syllabi Nevertheless it is strongly suggested by the simple observation of the following facts.
To do so, they must get rid of the outer shell\u2019s electrons becomingis oelectron ic with the closest (preceding) noble gas.Is oelectronic means, they have as many electrons as the noble gas).
For this purpose they gain electrons (two electrons and one electron respectively) and they also become isoelectronic with the nearest noble gas in the Periodic Table.
This Lewis\u2019 rule or complete outer shell rule, or \u201cthe rule of eight\u201d gives a fairly good explanation to the problem of chemical bond formation and with some modifications can be generally applied. It states that
If the atoms are equally electronegative, both have the same tendency to attract the bonding pair of electrons, and so it will be found on average half way between the two atoms. To get a bond like this, A and B would usually have to be the same atom. You will find this sort of bond in, for example, H2 or Cl2 molecules.
What is the situation in case both atoms A and B are different? Suppose B is slightly more electronegative than A. Then B will attract the electron pair rather more than A does.
That means that the B end of the bond has more than its fair share of the electrons and so becomes slightly negative. At the same time, the A end (rather short of electrons) becomes slightly positive. In the diagram, "\u03b4" (read as "delta") means "slightly" - so \u03b4+ means "slightly positive". This is described as a polar bond. A polar bond is a bond in which there is a separation of charge between one end and the other - in other words in which one end is slightly positive and the other slightly negative. The hydrogen- chlorine bond in HCl or the hydrogen-oxygen bonds in water are typical.
In this case, the electron pair is dragged right over to B's end of the bond. To all intents and purposes, A has lost control of its electron, and B has complete control over both electrons. A give and take bond has been formed .
How far does this dragging have to go before the bond counts as give and take bond? There is no real answer to that. You normally think of sodium chloride as being a typically ionic solid, but even here the sodium hasn'tcompletely lost control of its electron. Because of the properties of sodium chloride, however, we tend to count it as if it were purely ionic.
In the following paragraphs the different classes of chemical bonds will be described , we will assume for simplicity that the substances are 100 % \u201cgive take\u201d or \u201csharing\u201d bonds
Most metals have no more than two electrons in their outer shells. On the other hand most non metals have five or more electrons in the highest level. To resemble the nearest noble gas, metalsgive their outer shell\u2019s electrons and non metals take them
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