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Project 7 Compressor Limiter p91-95

Project 7 Compressor Limiter p91-95

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Published by goengkiong
DiY Musician Projects
DiY Musician Projects

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Published by: goengkiong on Aug 05, 2014
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Defln'tlon: A compressor educes he dynamic rangeot a signal by attenuating peaks and amplitying valleys.A limiter only restricts the peaks ot a signal. This unitcombines elements ot both.
Figure 5-45Compressor mounted in a Vector-Pak card moduleprior to installation in the pedalboard project (No.23).
Level of Difficulty: lntermediate
Background:Compression and limiting have been used or mony yearsin studio s, radio stations, commercials, communications,and mony other applications. Dynamic range reductionprevents overloading oftapes, thus minimizingdistortion:increases he apparent sustain of stringed (percussive) in-struments; and improves intelligibility with speech andPA systems. When play ing guitar through a compressor,for example, single-note lines or fuli six-string chordssound equally lo ud.
Construction Tips;While not an extremely critical circuit, please note thefollowing precautions.This project uses a CLM6000 opto-isolator. Refer tothe Genera³ nstructions section at the beginning of thischapter before attempting to solder this part in place.Keep all wiring as short and direct as possible, espe-cially those wires going to Jl, R6, and R7. Keep nputand output leads at least 1 cm (1/2 ) away from eachother.Shield he wires going from pad D to R7, tenninal 2,and rom pad A to R6, tenninals 3 and 2.Using he CompressorIn many ways, compressors le at their best when usedsubtly. Use he minimum amount of compression eces-sary to get the effect you want. Guitar players shouldnote that a compressor nly increases he apparent sus-tain of a guitar; i.e., it cannot make a string vibrate any~onger, ut instead amplifies he string more as t decays.. Plug nstrument nto Jl and patch J2 to your amp.Start with both controls ul1y counterclockwise.Features. Fast attack, s³ow decay esponse. 10:1 compression atio over 50-dBrange see Spec-ifications). Also functions as compressing reamp or convert-ing low-Ievel signa1s o compressed, igh-Ievel sig-na1s. Choice of line-Ievel or low-Ievel operation set bysingle esistor
. Operates rom 9 to t15V. Separate ompression nd output controls . Suitable or recording r stage se. Excellent requency esponse haracteristics 94
Modifications. For line-level operation, ecommended 8=220k. For low-level operation, R8=lM. For maximum sustain, use 1M for R8, even williline-level signa1s. he tradeoff is mOle noise, especiallywhen preceded willi other electronic devices or whenused n conjunction willi an instrument that bas a built-in instrument preamp.. Running the compressor at t15V increases heamount of sustain slightly.
Tum up output for a preamping effect. At extremeclockwise positions you may encounter distortion. Re-turn control to about halfway before proceeding to nextstep.
. Tum up compression until you notice a drop inlevel. The level drop corresponds o the amount of gainreduction introduced by the compressor. ncrease out-put to compensate or this drop. Subtler instrumentsounds hould naw be mOle prominent.. With extreme clockwise settings of the compres-sion control, the soundwill getnoisy andpossibly ough-sounding. Avoid overcompression.. For absolute minimum noise, do not use anyelectronic devices fuzzes, etc.) before the compressor.With moderate amounts of compression, ncluding a ow noise preamp n the signal chain before the compressorwill introduce an acceptably aw amount of noise. How-ever, n most cases he compressor hould come first inthe signal chain.In Case f DifficuIty. Noise: Reduce compression ontrol. Feed nstru-ment directly into compressor.. Distortion: Reduce output control. If distortionpersists, educe compression ontrol, and return outputto original setting (or until distortion occurs). Make SUTeyou aren t overloading our amp.. No compression ction: First, remember thatcompressors le not supposed o add much coloration othe sound; compare compressed ound willi bypassedsound to determine whether the unit isn t compressing.If compression till isn t evident, che k 011 or properorientation and installation. Check C2. Check compres-sion control setting.Figure 5-46Compression urve, R8=lM. When R8=220k thecurve sn t as dramatic, but I still recommend hisvalue or line-level applications to keep the noiselevel acceptable.SpecificationsCurrent consumption: 5mAFrequency esponse any setting of compression r out-put control): tldB, 50Hz
20kHzOutput headroom: 14V pk-pkCompression atio: 50dB change n input level yields5dB change n output level; 60dB change n input levelyields lOdB change n output level (R8=lM)Compression urve: see Figure 5-46
Figure 5-47Artwork for the foil side of the circuit board,
shown 1 to 1.
How it WorksTo fulIy understand how ibis project works, reread the section in the be-ginning of ibis chapter on how the CLM6000 opto-isolator works.The input couples into ICIA through C3 and R9. R8 sets the maxi-mum gain of ibis op amp stage, but the overall gain is variable because ofthe photoresistor connected in paraIle with R8. More light on the photo-resistor reduces the gain of ibis stage: ess ight gives more gain.The output of ICIA takes iwo different paths, one towards ICIB andthe other towards IC2. We'lI Iook at IC2 flrst. This op amp is a high-speed,uncompensated op amp whose frequency response s .lirnited by C2. Thesignal from ICIA couples into IC2 through C4, compression control R7,and R5. The output of IC2 then dñves the LED half of the CLM6000, sothe LED bñghtness corresponds to the loudness of the signal from your in-strument. As more signal goes into IC2, the LED gets bñghter, which re-duces the gain of IC 1 A and sends ess signal to IC2. Thus, as the in'put sig-fial increases, the compressor is constant1y trying to tum itself down,which is what keeps the signal output mOle or less constant in the face ofwidely varying input voltages. This action takes place so fagi you don'tbeaT he effect as something choppy, but rather as a smooth, compressingeffect. R7 determines the amount of signallevel going into IC2. LettingmOle signal through tums on the LED that much sooner, resulting in gajureduction at lower signallevels for more compression.Because we've cut the gain of IClA down via the above-mentionedcompression action, we need to add someampliflcation to bñng the signallevel back up again at the output. This is ICIB's function. R6 sets the gain;CI limits the high-frequeocy respoose of this stage o prevent instability.The output floro this amp couples through C6 to J2, the output jack. R3tñes to keep C6 tied to ground; ibis prevents you from heañng a loud popwhen you plugsomething into the output.Dl and D2 ale polañty reversal protection diodes, while C7 and C8 addrower supply bypassing and decoupling.

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