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Addition and Subtraction of Integers Investigation

# Addition and Subtraction of Integers Investigation

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Year 8 Long weekend work
Year 8 Long weekend work

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09/26/2011

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The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, …. are called
NATURAL
numbers (the counting numbers). This set of numbers is often represented by the symbol
N
and can be written using the followingnotation
{ }
1,2,3,4,.........
N
=
The numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …. are called
WHOLE
numbers. This set of numbers is oftenrepresented by the symbol
and can be written using the following notation
=
0,1,2,3,4,.........
{ }
These numbers are shown on the number line belowIf we extend the number line to the left we get;This larger set of numbers is called
INTEGERS
. The number 1, 2, 3, 4, …. are the
POSITIVEINTEGERS
and the numbers ….,-4, -3, -2, -1 are the
NEGATIVE INTEGERS
. Notice that henumber 0 is neither positive nor negative but is still an integer.This set can be written using the symbol
Z
for integers as,
{
..., 4, 3, 2, 1,0,1,2,3,4,...
Z
=

In this investigation you are going to investigate the rules for adding andsubracting integers.

Part 1:A - Adding and subtracting integers – with the help of a number line
Representing number sentences on a number line.
Example 1:
To represent the
number sentence
3 + 2 = 5, we find 3 on the number line andsimply move 2 more places
to the right
.
Example 2:
To represent the number sentence 4 – 3 = 1, we find 4 on the number line andsimply move 3 places
to the left
.
Of course, the above ideas should already be very familiar to you!
B - Adding and subtracting integers – with the help of the Chinese “Tai ji” orYin – yan symbol – see below.
+2-3
, we move further to the
right

subtracting
, we move further to the
left

The Chinese
Yin – yan
consists of two parts:
light
(yin) and
(yan). The light partrepresents the warm and bright sides of nature while the shadow part representsthe cold and dark sides. Therefore, the lightpart can be treated as
positive
negative
. These two parts,when grouped together, have a meaning of balance and harmony.

Example 1:
To calculate 3 + 2, is the same as,
How can this help us with adding andsubtracting?
If we use +1 to represent light and -1 torepresent shadow, the whole diagramnow represents the number zero.
+1-1
note: in this diagram the half with the blackdot represents shadow
+1+1 +1and+1 +1
So
altogether
we have a total of
five positive symbols
and so the answer to 3 + 2 is5, and therefore
3 + 2 = 5

Example 2:
To calculate 3 - 1, we can think of this as the same as three
remove
one,
+1+1 +1
So
altogether
we have a total of
two positive symbols and a zero
, and so,
3 -1 = 2.

removing oneleaves us with+1+1

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