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IB Biology IA: Enzymes and Inhibition

IB Biology IA: Enzymes and Inhibition

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Published by Momina Amjad
The effect of copper (II) sulphate on the activity of catalase.

Feel free to share this and comment if you have any queries. I'd be happy to help out!

Biology was an HL subject for me.
The effect of copper (II) sulphate on the activity of catalase.

Feel free to share this and comment if you have any queries. I'd be happy to help out!

Biology was an HL subject for me.

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Published by: Momina Amjad on Aug 06, 2014
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08/30/2014

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Enzymes and inhibition
THE EFFECT OF COPPER (II) SULPHATE ON THE ACTIVITY OF CATALSE
February 26, 2013 Centre Number: 002223 Candidate Number: 0028 Momina Amjad
A network of alternative conformations in catalase with diverse properties (Keedy, 2012)
 
Biology IA: Enzymes and Inhibition 002223-0028 1
Research Question:
What is the effect of increasing the concentration of CuSO
4
on the activity of the enzyme catalase as measured by amount of oxygen gas produced in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide?
Hypothesis:
Increasing the concentration of CuSO
4
will decrease the activity of catalase. This is because the Cu
2+
 in CuSO
4
, like other metallic ions
,
acts as an inhibitor
1
. As a result, less oxygen will be produced during the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water the higher the concentration of CuSO
4
will be.
Background information:
Catalase is a very important enzyme that is found in nearly all organisms to catalyze the decomposition of toxic hydrogen peroxide into harmless water and oxygen. The enzyme exists in all living tissue to handle the byproduct of oxidative metabolism that is H
2
O
2
, with particularly high concentrations in the liver because it is the main detoxifying organ of the body. Therefore bovine liver will be used for the purpose of this IA as a source of catalase. The equation for the decomposition of H
2
O
2
 is:
2 H
2
O
2
 
→ 2 H
2
O + O
2
Like all enzymes catalase has an active site, the surface of which comes into contact with the substrate. This leads to a change in shape of the enzyme to accommodate the substrate but there are certain substances called inhibitors that affect the active site thus they can slow down or completely stop the catalysis. CuSO
4
is specifically a non-competitive inhibitor wherein the inhibitor binds to the e
nzyme’s allosteric site (i.e.
 any site of the enzyme excluding the active site) because it is not structurally similar to the substrate. This means it is not in competition with the
substrate rather it causes a change in the shape of the enzyme’s active site, making it non
-functional, and this change is often irreversible. Irreversible inhibitors form strong covalent bonds with an enzyme and heavy metals such as Ag
+
, Hg
2+
, Pb
2+
have strong affinities for
 –
SH (sulfhydryl) groups
2
. Overleaf there is a diagrammatic explanation of the mechanism of non-competitive inhibition. Apart from inhibitors, pH levels, temperature and substrate concentration also have an impact on enzyme activity. Enzymes have an optimum pH and higher or lower pH conditions might damage the active site by changing its chemical structure. Likewise is also true for high temperatures as enzymes, like other proteins, get denatured. These will we discussed further while explaining the controlled variables in this experiment.
1
 Ward, W. and Damon, A. 2007.
Pearson baccalaureate
. Harlow, [England]: Pearson Education.
2
 Elmhurst.edu. 2003.
Enzyme Inhibitors
. [online] Available at: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/573inhibit.html[Accessed: 10 Jan 2014].
 
Biology IA: Enzymes and Inhibition 002223-0028 2
Figure 1: Non-competitive inhibition
3 
3
 Wikipedia. 2010.
Non-competitive inhibition
. [image online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Non-competitive_inhibition.svg [Accessed: 10 Jan 2014]

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Please note: 1) This is intended to be used as a guide to help you start. If you take out chunks of text or ideas directly it would count as plagiarism and would cost you your diploma. 2) This internal assessment is in line with the requirements of the syllabus upto 2014 examinations. The criteria may change after that, consult your subject guide.

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