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8_CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

8_CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

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8
Anne M. Ellis S.K. Ghosh David A. Fanella
Earth Tech., Inc.Alexandria, VAPresident S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc.Northbrook, ILDir. of Engineering S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc.Northbrook, IL
C
ONCRETE
D
ESIGNAND
C
ONSTRUCTION
C
oncrete made with portland cement iswidely used as a construction material because of its many favorable charac-teristics. One of the most important isa large strength-cost ratio in many applications.Another is that concrete, while plastic, may be castin forms easily at ordinary temperatures to pro-duce almost any desired shape. The exposed facemay be developed into a smooth or rough hardsurface, capable of withstanding the wear of truckor airplane traffic, or it may be treated to createdesired architectural effects. In addition, concretehas high resistance to fire and penetration of water.But concrete also has disadvantages. An import-ant one is that quality control sometimes is not sogood as for other construction materials becauseconcrete often is manufactured in the field underconditions where responsibility for its produc-tion cannot be pinpointed. Another disadvantage isthatconcreteisarelativelybrittlematerial—itstensilestrength is small compared with its compressivestrength. This disadvantage, however, can be offset byreinforcingorprestressingconcretewithsteel.Thecombination of the two materials, reinforced con-crete, possesses many of the best properties of eachand finds use in a wide variety of constructions,including building frames, floors, roofs, and walls; bridges; pavements; piles; dams; and tanks.
8.1 Important Properties ofConcrete
Characteristics of portland cement concrete can bevaried to a considerable extent by controlling itsingredients. Thus, for a specific structure, it iseconomical to use a concrete that has exactly thecharacteristics needed, though weak in others. Forexample, concretefor a building frame should havehigh compressive strength, whereas concrete for adamshouldbedurableandwatertight,andstrengthcan be relatively small. Performance of concrete inservice depends on both properties in the plasticstate and properties in the hardened state.
8.1.1 Properties in the Plastic State
Workability
is an important property for manyapplications of concrete. Difficult to evaluate,workability is essentially the ease with which theingredients can be mixed and the resulting mixhandled, transported, and placed with little loss inhomogeneity. One characteristic of workability thatengineers frequently try to measure is consistency,or fluidity. For this purpose, they often make aslump test.In the slump test, a specimen of the mix isplaced in a mold shaped as the frustum of acone, 12 in high, with 8-in-diameter base and4-in-diameter top (ASTM Specification C143).When the mold is removed, the change in heightof the specimen is measured.When the test is madein accordance with the ASTM Specification, thechange in height may be taken as the slump.(As measured by this test, slump decreases astemperature increases; thus the temperature of themix at time of test should be specified, to avoiderroneous conclusions.)Tapping the slumped specimen gently on oneside with a tamping rod after completing the test
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers
 
may give additional information on the cohesive-ness, workability, and placeability of the mix(“Concrete Manual,” Bureau of Reclamation,Government Printing Office, Washington, DC20402(www.gpo.gov)).Awell-proportioned,work-ablemixsettlesslowly,retainingitsoriginalidentity.A poor mix crumbles, segregates, and falls apart.Slump of a given mix may be increased byadding water, increasing the percentage of fines(cement or aggregate), entraining air, or incorpo-rating an admixture that reduces water require-ments. But these changes affect other properties of the concrete, sometimes adversely. In general, theslump specified should yield the desired consis-tency with the least amount of water and cement.
8.1.2 Properties in theHardened State
Strength
isapropertyofconcretethatnearlyalwaysis of concern. Usually, it is determined by theultimate strength of a specimen in compression, but sometimes flexural or tensile capacity is thecriterion. Sinceconcreteusually gains strengthovera long period of time, the compressive strength at28 days is commonly used as a measure of thisproperty. In the United States, it is general practiceto determine the compressive strength of concrete by testing specimens in the form of standardcylinders made in accordance with ASTM Specifi-cation C192 or C31. C192 is intended for researchtestingorforselectingamix(laboratoryspecimens).C31 applies to work in progress (field specimens).ThetestsshouldbemadeasrecommendedinASTMC39. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to de-termine the strength of concrete by taking drilledcores; in that case, ASTM C42 should be adopted.(SeealsoAmericanConcreteInstituteStandard214,“Recommended Practice for Evaluation of StrengthTest Results of Concrete.” (www.aci-int.org))The 28-day compressive strength of concretecan be estimated from the 7-day strength by a for-mula proposed by W. A. Slater (
Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute,
1926):
S
28
¼
S
7
þ
30
 ffiffiffiffiffi
S
7
(8
:
1)where
S
28
¼
28-day compressive strength, psi
S
7
¼
7-day strength, psiConcrete may increase significantly in strengthafter 28 days, particularly when cement is mixedwith fly ash. Therefore, specification of strengths at56 or 90 days is appropriate in design.Concrete strength is influenced chiefly by thewater-cement ratio; the higher this ratio, the lowerthe strength. In fact, the relationship is approxi-mately linear when expressed in terms of thevariable
C
/
, the ratio of cement to water byweight: For a workable mix, without the use of water reducing admixtures
S
28
¼
2700
C
À
760 (8
:
2)Strength may be increased by decreasing water-cement ratio, using higher-strength aggregates,grading the aggregates to produce a smallerpercentage of voids in the concrete, moist curingtheconcreteafterithasset,addingapozzolan,suchas fly ash, incorporating a superplasticizer admix-ture, vibrating the concrete in the forms, andsucking out excess water with a vacuum from theconcrete in the forms. The short-time strength may be increased by using Type III (high-early-strength)portland cement (Art. 5.6) and accelerating admix-tures, and by increasing curing temperatures, butlong-time strengths may not be affected. Strength-increasing admixtures generally accomplish theirobjective by reducing water requirements for thedesired workability. (See also Art. 5.6.)Availability of such admixtures has stimulatedthe trend toward use of high-strength concretes.Compressive strengths in the range of 20,000 psihave been used in cast-in-place concrete buildings.
Tensile Strength
,
ct
, of concrete is much lowerthan compressive strength. For members subjectedto bending, the modulus of rupture
r
is used indesign rather than the concrete tensile strength. Fornormal weight, normal-strength concrete, ACIspecifies
r
¼
7
:
5
 ffiffiffiffi
 f 
0
c
.The stress-strain diagram for concrete of aspecified compressive strength is a curved line(Fig. 8.1). Maximum stress is reached at a strain of 0.002 in
/
in, after which the curve descends.
Modulus of elasticity
E
c
generally used indesign forconcrete is a secant modulus. In ACI 318,“Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Con-crete,” it is determined by
E
c
¼
w
1
:
5
33
 ffiffiffiffi
 f 
0
c
, psi (8
:
3
a
)where
w
c
¼
density of concrete lb
/
ft
3
 f 
0
c
¼
specified compressive strength at 28days, psi
8.2
n
Section Eight
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
 
This equation applies when 90 pcf 
,
w
c
,
155 pcf.For normal-weight concrete, with
w
¼
145 lb
/
ft
3
,
E
c
¼
57,000
 ffiffiffiffi
 f 
0
c
, psi (8
:
3
b
)The modulus increases with age, as does thestrength. (See also Art. 5.6)
Durability
is another important property of concrete. Concrete should be capable of with-standingtheweathering,chemicalaction,andwearto which it will be subjected in service. Much of theweather damage sustained by concrete is attribu-table to freezing and thawing cycles. Resistance of concrete to such damage can be improved by usingappropriate cement types, lowering w
/
c ratio, pro-viding proper curing, using alkali-resistant aggre-gates, using suitable admixtures, using an air-entraining agent, or applying a protective coatingto the surface.Chemical agents, such as inorganic acids, aceticandcarbonicacids,andsulfatesofcalcium,sodium,magnesium, potassium, aluminum, and iron, dis-integrate or damage concrete. When contact between these agents and concrete may occur, theconcrete should be protected with a resistant coa-ting. For resistance to sulfates, Type V portlandcement may be used (Art. 5.6). Resistance to wearusually is achieved by use of a high-strength, denseconcrete made with hard aggregates.
Watertightness
is an important property of concrete that can often be improved by reducingthe amount ofwater in the mix. Excess water leavesvoids and cavities after evaporation, and if theyare interconnected, water can penetrate or passthrough the concrete. Entrained air (minute bub- bles) usually increases watertightness, as doesprolonged thorough curing.
Volume change
is another characteristic of concrete that should be taken into account.Expansion due to chemical reactions between theingredients of concrete may cause buckling anddrying shrinkage may cause cracking.Expansion due to alkali-aggregate reaction can be avoided by selecting nonreactive aggregates. If reactive aggregates must be used, expansion may be reduced or eliminated by adding pozzolanicmaterial, such as fly ash, to the mix. Expansion dueto heat of hydration of cement can be reduced by
Fig. 8.1
Stress-strain curves for concrete.
Concrete Design and Construction
n
8.3
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

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