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IB Chemistry IA: Kinetics

IB Chemistry IA: Kinetics

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Published by Momina Amjad
To determine whether H+ ions in HCl act as a catalyst in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulfate.

Chemistry was an HL subject for me.
To determine whether H+ ions in HCl act as a catalyst in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulfate.

Chemistry was an HL subject for me.

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Published by: Momina Amjad on Aug 07, 2014
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01/23/2015

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To determine whether H
+
 ions in HCl act as a catalyst in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulfate
Introduction:
A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of the reaction by lowering down 
the reaction’s
activation energy. Reactions happen as a result of successful collisions and for that, particles need to have a certain amount of kinetic energy. This energy is known as activation energy. Catalysts provide an alternate pathway to the reaction that requires less energy, therefore allowing more successful collisions in a shorter amount of time. This is explained in diagram below.
1
 The diagram below explains this concept using a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve and how catalysts alter activation energy.
2
 The stoichiometric and net ionic equations for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulfate are:
Na
2
S
2
O
3
(aq) + 2HCl(aq)
S(s) + SO
2
(g) + 2NaCl(aq)
 
2H
+
(aq) + S2O
32-
(aq) → SO
2
(g) + S(s) + H
2
O(l)
1
 Pearson Baccalaureate IB Chemistry Higher Level- p;213
2
 Pearson Baccalaureate IB Chemistry Higher Level- p;214
 
Majority of catalysts don’t undergo chemical ch
ange and by the endpoint of the reaction
they’re the
same chemically as they were in the beginning. However, there are some reactions that are more complex in which the reactants or the products themselves temporarily act as catalysts in some steps of the reaction mechanism. This investigation hopes to find out whether hydrogen ions in the acid act as a catalyst by calculating the activation energies of the reaction at different concentrations of the acid. The Arrhenius equation (
  
-Ea/RT 
 
or
k=Ae
-Ea/RT 
 )can be used to calculate the activation energy.
Research Question:
Based on the activation energies for the reaction between HCl and
Na
2
S
2
O
3
using different concentrations of hydrochloric acid, do the H
+
 ions in HCl act as a catalyst?
 
Hypothesis:
The H
+
 ions react as a catalyst. The higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the lower the activation energy should be; indicating catalytic activity.
Variables: Independent
 
Temperature of the reactants
 
Concentration of HCl solution
Dependent
Time taken for solution to become opaque/ catalytic activity
Controlled
1.
 
Temperature of the surroundings 2.
 
Concentration of Na
2
S
2
O
3
solution 3.
 
Volume of HCl and Na
2
S
2
O
3
 solutions 4.
 
Apparatus used
5.
 
Stirring of the reactants once they were mixed
 A note on the independent variables: This investigation is a bit unusual in that it requires two variables to be independent, however
it’s important to note that they weren’t independent simultaneously.
 A non-continuous method was used where all three concentrations of HCl- 0.5 mol dm
-3
, 0.3 mol dm
-3
 and 0.1 mol dm
-3
 were manipulated one by one with a range of temperatures repeated each time. It can be thought of as trials of the same experiment except that the concentration of acid was also changed. Method of control: Air conditioning remained constant in the lab throughout. 0.1 mol dm
-3
 concentration of
Na
2
S
2
O
3
 solution was used at all times. 10 cm
3
 volume was controlled using measuring cylinders for both the HCl and
Na
2
S
2
O
3
.
Same measuring cylinders, beakers, Bunsen burner and thermometer were used each time. Each time the reactants were mixed in the beaker and similar intensity of stirring was tried.
 
Apparatus:
10 cm
3
 measuring cylinder (±0.05 ml) 10 cm
3
 measuring cylinder (±0.1 ml) Thermometer (±0.1 °C) Stopwatch (± 1 s) Two 100 cm
3
 thick glass beakers Bunsen burner Tripod Gauze Stirring rod Droppers Filter paper (for making a mark)
Materials:
0.1 mol dm
-3
 Na
2
S
2
O
3
solution 0.5 mol dm
-3
 HCl solution Distilled water Match sticks Markers Wipes
Procedure:
1.
 
Designate a beaker, a measuring cylinder and a dropper for both Na
2
S
2
O
3
and HCl
solutions with some kind of a marking on them so that they don’t get mixed up and
cause impurities before the actual reaction. Use the same ones throughout this investigation. 2.
 
Make a bold cross on the filter paper. This will be used to check the opaqueness of the reaction. 3.
 
0.5 mol dm
-3
 HCl solution will be used first as it needs no further dilutions. Measure 10 cm
3
of it and 10 cm
3
 of Na
2
S
2
O
3
solution and empty them into two separate beakers. This is the room temperature test, so it needs no heating. Place the beaker with sodium thiosulfate over the mark on the filter paper.

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Momina Amjad added this note
Please note: 1) This is intended to be used as a guide to help you start. If you take out chunks of text or ideas directly it would count as plagiarism and would cost you your diploma. 2) This internal assessment is in line with the requirements of the syllabus upto 2014 examinations. The criteria may change after that, consult your subject guide. Feel free to comment if you have queries.
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