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Chuyen de Tuyen tap de thi Dai hoc thu o cac trung tam luyen thi

Chuyen de Tuyen tap de thi Dai hoc thu o cac trung tam luyen thi

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03/18/2014

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I. \u00a7\u00c6t v\u00can \u00ae\u00d2

Trong ch\u00acng tr\u00d7nh to\u00b8n \u00eb tr\u00eang ph\u00e6 th\u00abng vi\u00d6c ch\u00f8ng minh b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c l\u00b5 m\u00e9t v\u00can \u00ae\u00d2 c\u00e3 th\u00d3 n\u00e3i l\u00b5 ph\u00f8c t\u00b9p nh\u00cat, n\u00e3 r\u00ccn cho ng\u00eai l\u00b5m to\u00b8n tr\u00dd th\u00abng minh, s\u00f9 s\u00b8ng t\u00b9o, ngo\u00b5i ra c\u00dfn c\u00e3 c\u00b6 s\u00f9 kh\u00d0o l\u00d0o, m\u00e7i k\u00d5t qu\u00b6 c\u00f1a n\u00e3 l\u00b5 m\u00e9t c\u00abng c\u00f4 s\u00bec b\u00d0n c\u00f1a to\u00b8n h\u00e4c. Nhng \u00ae\u00d3 ch\u00f8ng minh b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c th\u00d7 kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00acn gi\u00b6n ch\u00f3t n\u00b5o, nh\u00cat l\u00b5 \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi h\u00e4c sinh, c\u00b8c em t\u00e1 ra l\u00f3ng t\u00f3ng khi ch\u00e4n cho m\u00d7nh m\u00e9t c\u00abng c\u00f4 \u00ae\u00d3 ch\u00f8ng minh hi\u00d6u qu\u00b6 nh\u00cat. \u00a7\u00b7 c\u00e3 r\u00cat nhi\u00d2u t\u00b5i li\u00d6u \u00aea ra m\u00e9t s\u00e8 ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p r\u00cat t\u00e8t \u00ae\u00d3 ch\u00f8ng minh b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c ch\u00bcng h\u00b9n:

- Ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng c\u00b8c t\u00ddnh ch\u00cat c\u00ac b\u00b6n c\u00f1a b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng
th\u00f8c.- Ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng tam th\u00f8c b\u00cbc 2.

- Ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng nh\u00f7ng b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c kinh \u00aei\u00d3n.
- Ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng ph\u00b6n ch\u00f8ng.
- Ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng quy n\u00b9p.
- Ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng \u00ae\u00b9o h\u00b5m.
- Ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng h\u00d7nh h\u00e4c.
- Ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng h\u00b5m l\u00e5i.

M\u00c6c d\u00ef v\u00cby song v\u00c9n l\u00b5 cha \u00ae\u00f1 b\u00ebi s\u00b8ng t\u00b9o c\u00f1a m\u00e7i ng\u00eai l\u00b5m to\u00b8n l\u00b5 v\u00ab h\u00b9n. Ch\u00ddnh v\u00d7 v\u00cby trong b\u00b5i vi\u00d5t n\u00b5y t\u00abi mu\u00e8n \u00ae\u00d2 c\u00cbp v\u00d2 "M\u00e9t s\u00e8 ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p l\u00eeng gi\u00b8c \u00ae\u00d3 ch\u00f8ng minh b\u00cat

\u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c \u00ae\u00b9i s\u00e8 " nh\u00bbm trang b\u00de th\u00aam cho h\u00e4c sinh m\u00e9t s\u00e8

c\u00abng c\u00f4 h\u00f7u hi\u00d6u \u00ae\u00d3 ch\u00f8ng minh c\u00b8c b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c \u00ae\u00b9i s\u00e8. Ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p l\u00eeng gi\u00b8c ho\u00b8 \u00ae\u00b7 \u00ae\u00eec m\u00e9t s\u00e8 s\u00b8ch c\u00f1a c\u00b8c t\u00b8c gi\u00b6 \u00ae\u00d2 c\u00cbp nh gi\u00b8o s Phan \u00a7\u00f8c Ch\u00ddnh, gi\u00b8o s Phan Huy Kh\u00b6i, ph\u00e3 ti\u00d5n s\u00dc V\u00f2 Th\u00d5 H\u00f9u... vi\u00d5t. Nhng do c\u00cau tr\u00f3c m\u00f4c ti\u00aau c\u00f1a c\u00b8c cu\u00e8n s\u00b8ch \u00ae\u00e3 m\u00b5 c\u00b8c t\u00b8c gi\u00b6 \u00ae\u00d2u kh\u00abng \u00aei s\u00a9u v\u00b5o ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p n\u00b5y hay n\u00e3i c\u00b8ch kh\u00b8c l\u00b5 cha th\u00cbt c\u00f4 th\u00d3 ho\u00b8, h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng ho\u00b8 n\u00e3.

L\u00b5 m\u00e9t gi\u00b8o vi\u00aan g\u00c7n 20 n\u00a8m gi\u00b6ng d\u00b9y v\u00edi c\u00b8c \u00ae\u00e8i t\u00eeng h\u00e4c sinh kh\u00b8 gi\u00e1i c\u00f1a c\u00b8c l\u00edp ch\u00e4n t\u00abi \u00ae\u00b7 ph\u00a9n chia ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p n\u00b5y th\u00b5nh 5 d\u00b9ng b\u00b5i t\u00cbp. Nh\u00bbm cung c\u00cap cho h\u00e4c sinh nh\u00cbn ra c\u00b8c d\u00cau hi\u00d6u ban \u00ae\u00c7u \u00ae\u00d3 th\u00f9c hi\u00d6n c\u00b8c b\u00edc l\u00eeng gi\u00b8c ho\u00b8 b\u00b5i to\u00b8n ch\u00f8ng minh b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c \u00ae\u00b9i s\u00e8, \u00ae\u00d3 r\u00e5i d\u00efng c\u00b8c k\u00d5t qu\u00b6 c\u00f1a b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c l\u00eeng gi\u00b8c ch\u00f8ng minh b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c \u00ae\u00b9i s\u00e8.

Qua th\u00f9c t\u00d5 gi\u00b6ng d\u00b9y \u00eb c\u00b8c l\u00edp ch\u00e4n kh\u00e8i 11 tr\u00eang THPT t\u00abi nh\u00cbn th\u00cay vi\u00d6c ph\u00a9n chia d\u00b9ng c\u00f1a t\u00abi l\u00b5 h\u00eep l\u00fd, l\u00abg\u00ddc c\u00f4 th\u00d3, c\u00e3 th\u00d3 nhanh ch\u00e3ng t\u00d7m ra ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p ch\u00f8ng minh \u00ae\u00eec b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c b\u00bbng c\u00b8ch \u00b8p d\u00f4ng c\u00b8c ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p t duy n\u00b5y c\u00f1a t\u00abi.T\u00abi s\u00cf tr\u00d7nh b\u00b5y v\u00d2 hi\u00d6u qu\u00b6 c\u00f1a ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p n\u00b5y \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi

h\u00e4c sinh \u00eb ph\u00c7n 4 k\u00d5t qu\u00b6 tr\u00bec nghi\u00d6m th\u00f9c t\u00d5 c\u00f1a s\u00b8ng ki\u00d5n.1
C\u00b8c t\u00b5i li\u00d6u tham kh\u00b6o
1. B\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c c\u00f1a gi\u00b8o s Phan \u00a7\u00f8c Ch\u00ddnh - NXB Gi\u00b8o
d\u00f4c 1995.
2. C\u00b8c b\u00b5i to\u00b8n ch\u00e4n l\u00e4c v\u00d2 b\u00cat \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c 2 t\u00cbp c\u00f1a gi\u00b8o
s Phan Huy Kh\u00b6i - NXB Gi\u00b8o d\u00f4c H\u00b5 N\u00e9i 2000.
3. Ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p l\u00eeng gi\u00b8c ho\u00b8 c\u00f1a PTS V\u00f2 Th\u00d5 H\u00f9u - NXB Gi\u00b8o
d\u00f4c 2002.
2
II. gi\u00b6i quy\u00d5t v\u00can \u00ae\u00d2
1. C\u00b8c ki\u00d5n th\u00f8c c\u00c7n n\u00bem
1.1. C\u00b8c h\u00d6 th\u00f8c c\u00ac b\u00b6n
+
1
sin
cos
2
2
=
\u03b1
+
\u03b1
+ 1 + tg2\u03b1 =
)
k
2
(
cos12
\u03c0
+
\u03c0
\u2260
\u03b1
\u03b1
+ tg\u03b1 . cotg\u03b1 = 1 (\u03b1 \u22602
k\u03c0)
+ 1 + cotg2\u03b1 =
)
k
(
sin12
\u03c0
\u2260
\u03b1
\u03b1
1.2. C\u00abng th\u00f8c c\u00e9ng g\u00e3c
+ cos(\u03b1 \u00b1 \u03b2 ) = cos\u03b1 cos\u03b2\ue000 sin\u03b1 sin\u03b2
+ sin(\u03b1 \u00b1 \u03b2 ) = sin\u03b1 cos\u03b2 \u00b1 cos\u03b1 sin\u03b2
+ tg (\u03b1 \u00b1 \u03b2 ) =
)
k
2
;
(
tg
tg
1
tg
tg
\u03c0
+
\u03c0
\u2260
\u03b2
\u03b1
\u03b2
\u03b1
\u03b2
\u00b1
\u03b1
\ue000
+ cotg(\u03b1 \u00b1 \u03b2 ) =
\u03b2
\u00b1
\u03b1
\u03b2
\u03b1
g
cot
g
cot
1
g
cot
.
g
cot
\ue000
)
k
;
(
\u03c0
\u2260
\u03b2
\u03b1
1.3. C\u00abng th\u00f8c nh\u00a9n
+ sin2\u03b1 = 2 sin\u03b1 cos\u03b1
+ cos2\u03b1 = cos2\u03b1 - sin2\u03b1 = 2cos2\u03b1 - 1 = 1 - 2sin2\u03b1
+ tg2\u03b1 =
)
2
k
4
(
tg
1
tg
2
2
\u03c0
+
\u03c0
\u2260
\u03b1
\u03b1
\u2212
\u03b1
+ cotg2\u03b1 =
)
2
k
(
g
cot
2
1
g
cot
2
\u03c0
\u2260
\u03b1
\u03b1\u2212
\u03b1
+ sin3\u03b1 = 3sin\u03b1 - 4sin3\u03b1
+ cos3\u03b1 = 4cos3\u03b1 - 3cos\u03b1
+ tg3\u03b1 =
3
k
6
(
tg
3
1
tg
tg
3
3
3
\u03c0
+
\u03c0
\u2260
\u03b1
\u03b1
\u2212
\u03b1
\u2212
\u03b1
)
1.4. C\u00abng th\u00f8c h\u00b9 b\u00cbc
+ cos2\u03b1 =
2
2
cos
1
\u03b1
+
+ sin2\u03b1 =
2
2
cos
1
\u03b1
\u2212
+ tg2\u03b1 =
\u03b1
+
\u03b1
\u2212
2
cos
1
2
cos
1
)
k
2
(
\u03c0
+
\u03c0
\u2260
\u03b1
1.5. C\u00abng th\u00f8c bi\u00d5n \u00ae\u00e6i t\u00e6ng th\u00b5nh t\u00ddch:
+ cos\u03b1 + cos\u03b2 = 2cos
2
cos
2
\u03b2
\u2212
\u03b1
\u03b2
+
\u03b1
+ cos\u03b1 - cos\u03b2 = - 2sin
2
2
\u03b2
\u03b1
\u03b2
\u03b1
sin
+
+ sin\u03b1 + sin\u03b2 = 2sin
2
2
\u03b2
\u03b1
\u03b2
\u03b1
cos
+
+ sin\u03b1 - sin\u03b2 = = - 2cos
2
sin
2
\u03b2
\u2212
\u03b1
\u03b2
+
\u03b1
+ tg\u03b1 \u00b1 tg\u03b2 =
\u03b2
\u03b1
\u03b2
\u00b1
\u03b1cos
.
cos
)
sin(
)
k
2
;
(
\u03c0
+
\u03c0
\u2260
\u03b2
\u03b1
3

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