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visual_character_recognition_using_artificial_neural_networks

visual_character_recognition_using_artificial_neural_networks

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03/18/2014

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Visual Character Recognition using
Artificial Neural Networks
ABSTRACT

The computing world has a lot to gain from neural networks. Their ability to learn by example makes them very

flexible

and powerful They are also very well suited for real time systems because of their fast response and computational

times which are due to their parallel

architecture.

The recognition of optical characters is known to be one of

the
earliest
applications
of
Artificial
Neural
Networks,
which
partially
emulate
human thinking in
the
domain
of
artificial
intelligence. In this
paper,
an
introduction
to
nueral

networks and a simplified neural approach to recognition

of optical or visual characters

is
portrayed
and
discussed.
1.
INTRODUCTION:

A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. A biological neuron may have as many as 10,000 different inputs, and may send its output to many other neurons. Neurons are wired up in a3-

dimensional
pattern.

The prime examples are of biologically neural networks, especially the human brain. These may be considered asself

learning mechanisms

which don't require the traditional skills of a programmer.

In
modern

usage, researchers often refer to an artificial neural

network (ANN)simply
as a \u201cneural network\u201d or
\u201cneural net\u201d for short.
These ANNresemble
the human brain in the
following way:
1. A neural network
acquires
knowledge
through learning.
2. A

neural
network's
knowledge

is
stored

within
inter-neuron
connection

strengths known
as
synaptic
weights.
PURPOSE:
A neural network is a
mathematical
or
computational model for
information processing
based on a connectionist
approach
to
computation.

The original inspiration for the technique was from examination

of bioelectrical networks in the brain formed by neurons

and

their synapses. In a neural network model, simple units (or processing elements ) are connected together to form a

network of nodes - hence the term "neural network".

These processing elements are termed as \u201cneurons\u201d or \u201cnodes\u201d.

Neural networks can
simulate
some
intelligence activitiesof
the human brain, such as
senseand inspiration,
as well as thinking of
images.

The Artificial Neuron is actually quite simple. All signals can be 1 or -1 (the "binary" case, often called classic spin for its similarity with the problem of disordered magnetic systems). The neuron

calculates

a weighted sum of inputs and compares it to a threshold. If the sum is higher

than

the threshold, the output is set to 1, otherwise to -1.

ARTIFICIAL
NEURON

It is observed that the evolving of ANN causes it to eventually reach a state where all neurons continue working but no further changes in their state happen. A network may have more than one stable states, and it is obviously determined by the choice of synaptic weights and thresholds for the neurons.

T
he recognition of
characters

from scanned images of documents

has been a problem that has received much attention in

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