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A nF P G A - B a s e d
S o f t w a r e
D e f i n e dRa d ioP l a t f o r m
f o r
th e2.4G HzIS MB a n d
A n t o n i oD iS t e f a n o ,G i u s e p p eF is c e l l i,C o s t a n t i n oG .Giac onia
D i p a r t i m e n t od iIn g e g n e r i aE l ettric a,E l e ttronic aed e l l eT e l e c o m u n i c a zi o n i ,U niv e rs it' ad e g l iS t u d i d iP a l e r m o
V ia l ed e l l eSc ienze,e d .9
-
9 0 1 28P a l e r m o ,It a l y
d is te fa n o( , d ie p a .u n ip a .it,g iu s e p p e fis c e l l i( ) , g m a il .c om ,c o s t a n t in o .g ia c o n ia ( & , u n ip a .it
A b s t r a c t - A
p r o t o t y p e
o fa
S o f t w a r e
D e f i n e d
Ra d io
( SDR)
p l a t f o r m
h a s
b e e n
s u c c e s s fu l l y
d e s i g n e d
a n d
t e s t e d
i m p l e m e n t i n g
a
r e c o n f i g u r a b l e
IE E E
8 0 2.1 1
a n d
Z i g B e e
rec eiv er.T h esy steme x p l oitsth er e c o n f i g u r a t i o nc a p a b il ityo f
a n
F P G A
f o r
i m p l e m e n t i n g
a
n u m b e r
o f
rec eiv er
c o n f i g u r a t i o n s
t h a t
s h a r e
th e
s a m e
R F
f r o n t - e n d .
C o n f i g u r a t i o n s
c anb es w i t c h e d
a tru ntim e ,
o rc ans h a r eth e
a v a il a b l el og ica n dr a d i or e s o u r c e .
I.
IN T R O D U C T IO N
S o f t w a r e
D e f i n e d
Ra d io
( SDR)
[ 1]
is
th e
a b il ity
o f
c h a ng ing
th ec h arac teristic so fat r a n s m i t t i n ga n dre c e iv ing
r a d io
dev ic e
with ou t
p h y s ic a l l y
m o d i f y i n g
th e
h a r d w a r e .
T h is
im p l ie s
th e
p os s ib il ity
o fc h a ng ing
c od ing
s c h e m e ,
m od u l a tion,b a n d w i d t ha n dc h a n n e lac c esste c h n iq u e s .T h is
c an
b e
d o n e
b y
u s in g
a
s u ita b l e
R F
s ta g e
a n d
a
r e p r o g r a m m a b l eo rr e c o n f i g u r a b l eh a r d w a r ei nth eb a s e b a n d
p r o c e s s i n g
a n d
m e d i u m
ac c ess
c ontrol
s e c tion s .
A n
im p l e m e n t a t io no fs u c hasy stemc anb ere a l l yc h a l l e ng ing ,
sinc ea l lth ed e s c r ib e de l e m e n t sa r ev eryc o m p l e x
t od e s ig n
a n dim p l e m e n t ,a n du s u a l l yr e q u i r eag re a tq u a n t i t yo fl og ic
r e s o u r c e s
o r
e x t r e m e l y
fa s t
( and
c ostl y )
D i g i t a l
S i g n a l
P r o c e s s o r s .F o rth isr e a s o no n l yar e c o n f i g u r a b l ef a b r i c
( in
th e
w i d e s t
c onnota tion
o f
th e
t e r m )
a n d
a
d e d ic a t e d
im p l e m e n t a t io nc anac h iev eth ere s u l t.
Inth isw o r kw ep r e s e n tafirs ta t t e m p tt ore a l izea n
S D R
p l a t f o r m
s u ita b l e
f o r
i m p l e m e n t i n g
a n d
t e s t in g
r e c o n f i g u r a b l e
wire l e s s
a r c h i t e c t u r e s
w o r k i n g
i n
th e
u n l ic e n s e d2.4G HzInd u s tria l ,Sc ie ntific ,a n dMe d i c a l( IS M)
b a n d .T h ep r o p o s e dsy steme m p l o y sac o m m e r c i a l
8 0 2.1l b
R Fs ta g ea n da nF P G Au s e dt oi m p l e m e n td if f e r e n trec eiv ers
b a s e b a n da n dMe d i u mAc c essC o n t r o l( MA C )
a rc h ite c tu re s ,
a n d
t oe x p e r im e n td if f e r e n ts o l u t i o n t oth er e c o n f i g u r a t i o n
p rob l e m s .
T h e
sy stem
c an
a l s o
b e
u s e d
a s
a
l ow
l e v e l
c h a n n e l
s n if f e rt od e e p l y
a n a l y ze
i n t e r a c t i o n sb e t w e e nth e
MA C
a n d
P h y s ic a l
( P HY )
l e v e l ,
a n d
p rotoc ol
in t e r o p e r a b il it ya n dc o m p l ia n c eis s u e sf o rd if f e r e n ts t a n d a r d s
[ 2] .A swil lb ed e s c r ib e di nth ef o l l o w i n g , i no r d e rt ote s tth e
fe a s ib il ityo fth isa p p r o a c ha nIE E E
8 0 2.1 1
[ 3 ]a n da nIE E E
8 0 2.1 5 .4
[ 4]
( a l s o
k n o w n
a s
" Z ig B e e " )
rec eiv er
w e r e
im p l e m e n t e d .
T h et w orec eiv ersc anw o r k
c o n c u r r e n t l y
o rc anb el o a d e d
( th rou g hr e c o n f i g u r a t i o n )
a tru ntim e .A s
c anb es e e nf r o m
F ig .1th e8 0 2.1l bc h a n n e lh a sab a n d w i d t ho fa b o u t
2 2 MH z ,
wh il e
th e
Z i g B e e
s ig n a l
oc c u p ie s
a
b a n d w i d t h
o fa b o u t
2 MH za n dh a sfa rl e s ss t r in g e n tr e q u i r e m e n t si nt e r mo fR F
s ta g e
l in e a rity ,
n o i s e
a n d
sensitiv ity .
F o r
th is
r e a s o n
th e
8 0 2.1l bR Ff r o n t - e n dc anb eu s e df o rb o t hth es ta n d a rd .
C h a m e d
1
240 0MH z
241 2M- I
<
2 2K IV
P
C h a n n d7
C h a n r e l
1 3
2 4 4 2M -
X \
"
2
M- Iz
247 2
MH z
248 3 5
N i - z
F ig u re
1 .
T h et h r e e8 0 2.1 1a n dth es ix te e n8 0 2.1 5 .4o r t h o g o n a lc h a n n e l
a n dt h e irre s p e c tiv ea l l oc a tiona n db a n d w i d t h .
T h e
f o l l o w i n g
sec tions( from
IIt oIV )
wil ld e s c rib ei n
d e ta ilth esy stemh a r d w a r e ,a r c h i t e c t u r ea n dim p l e m e n t a t io n
o fth e
t w o
rec eiv er
re s p e c tiv e l y .
Se c tion
V
p r e s e n t s
th e
i m p l e m e n t a t i o n
re s u l ts ,
a n d
fina l l y
i n
Se c tion
V Is o m e
c o n c l u s i o n sa r ed r o w n .
II.
S D RP L A T F O R MH A R D W A R E
T h eS D Rp l a t f o r misc o m p o s e db ya2.4G HzR Fc h a in,a
F ie l dP r o g r a m m a b l e
G a t e
Array ,
c a p a b l eo fi m p l e m e n t i n g
e ith e raB a s e B a n dP r o c e s s o ro rs o m e
te s ta nm e a s u r e m e n t
in s t r u m e n t s ,
a n d
a n
h os t
c o m p u t e r
u s e d
t o
c ontrol
a n d
c onfig u reth ewh ol esy stem( F ig .2) .
A ID&
D I
T
h os t
A n t e n n a
~ ~ ~ C onv e rtr
F ig u re2.
P ic t u r eo fth eS D Rp r o t o t y p e .
1 - 4244- 0 1 5 7 - 7 / 0 6 / $ 20 .0 0p 20 0 6IE E E
L - L
7 3
T h eR Ff r o n t - e n disb a s e do naMA X 2 8 2 0
8 0 2.1l bZ e r o -
IF
transc eiv er
f r o m
Ma x i m
[ 5 ]
th a ti n t e g r a t e s
a
c o m p l e t e
2.4G Hz
t r a n s m i s s i o n
a n d
r e c e p t i o n
p a t h
f r o m
R F
t o
b a s e b a n d
a n d
v ic e
v ersa
( V ol ta g e
C o n t r o l l e r
O s c il l a tor,
In t e g e r - NP h a s eL o c k e dL o o p s ,L o wN o i s eA m p l i f i e r ,direc t
d o w na n du p - c o n v e r t e r ,
a n dfil te rs ) .T h eR F
s ig na l ,c o m i n g
f r o ma no m n i d i r e c t i o n a lis os c e l e stria n g u l a rs l ota n t e n n a[ 6 ] ,
d e s i g n e df o rth e2.4G HzIS Mb a n d ,
isa m p l ifie da n dd o w n -
c onv ertedb y
aq u a d r a t u r ed e m o d u l a t o r ,
th u so b t a i n i n gth e
t w oa n a l o gIn - P h a s ea n dQ u a d r a t u r e( I& Q )
s ig na l s .T h et w o
b a s e b a n ds ig n a l sa r eth e np rov id e dt oth eF P G Au s in gt w o6
b it
m a t c h e d
A n a l o g
t o
D i g i t a l
c onv e rte rs
o p e r a t i n g
a t
2 2 Ms p s .T h isfreq uenc ya l l o w st og e tt w os a m p l e sp e rc h ip
i nc aseo f8 0 2.1 1
s ig n a l sa n d1 1s a m p l e sp e rc h ipf o rZ i g B e e
s ig na l s .
T h eF P G A
u s e d
isam id
d e n s it y
S R A M- b a s e d
dev ic e
f r o m
X i l i n x
th a t
is
u s e d
t o
i m p l e m e n t
a
r e c o n f i g u r a b l e
b a s e b a n d
p r o c e s s o r / MA C
a n d / o r
c u s t o m
m e a s u r e m e n t
in s t r u m e n t s .
T h e
b o a r dh a s
a l s o
1 MB
o fe x t e r n a l
S R A M
w i t h
1 O n s
ac c ess
tim e ,
th a tc anb eu s e d
t os t o r e
s a m p l e d
d a ta ,te s tv e c toro rm e a s u r e s .T h eF P G Aa l s oc o n t r o l sth eR F
sec tionth rou g hd e d ic a t e dp rog ra m m ingl ine s ,th eA u t o m a t i c
G a i nC o n t r o l( A G C )
in p u ta n dt r a n s m i tp o w e rc o n t r o l .D a t a
o u t p u tf r o mth eF P G A
a r ea v a il a b l et oa ne x t e r n a lMIA C
o r
c anb ed ir e c t l ys e n tt oah os tP C .T h e h os tisa l s ou s e dt o
r e c o n f i g u r e
th e
F P G A
i n
o r d e r
t o
i m p l e m e n t
th e
d e s ire d
f u n c t io n a l it y .
III.
8 0 2.1 1R E C E IV E RA R C H IT E C T U R E
T h e
IE E E
8 0 2.1 1
s t a n d a r d
( 1 9 9 7
e d i t i o n )
e m p l o y s
a
D i f f e r e n t i a l
B i n a r y
P h a s e
Sh ift
K e y ing
( DBPSK )
a n d
a
D i f f e r e n t i a l
Q u a t e r n a r y
P h a s e
Sh ift
K e y ing
( DQ P SK )
t o
m o d u l a t e
s ig n a l s
w i t h
a
b it
r a t e
o f
1 Mb p s
a n d
2 Mb p s
re s p e c tiv e l y .
In
b o t h
c a s e s
th e
Dire c t
Seq uenc e
S p r e a d
Sp e c tru m
( DSSS)
te c h niq u e
is
a p p l ie d
u s in g
a n
1 1
c h ip
B a r k e r
c ode
( i.e .
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 )
a s
a
s p r e a d in g
s e q u e n c e .
E v ery
f r a m ep r e a m b l e
ist r a n s m i t t e du s in gth e
1 Mb p s
r a t e
a n dm od u l a tion,wh il eth e2 Mb p s
r a t ec anb eu s e df o rd a t a
fie l d .A
s c r a m b l in gp r o c e s sisa l s oa p p l ie dt od a t ab e f o r eth e
m o d u l a t i o np roc e s s .
T oT r a n s c e i v e r
G a i nC o n t r o lF ig u re3 .
T h e8 0 2.1 1b a s e b a n da r c h it e c t u r e .
C o n s i d e r i n g
th e
a b o v e
m e n t i o n e d
s p e c ific a tion s ,
it
is
c l e a rth a td e m o d u l a t in g
8 0 2.1 1
s ig na l sisn o tatriv ia lta s k ,
r e q u i r i n gaq u itec o m p l e x
rec eiv er.F ig .3
s h o w sth eb l o c k
d i a g r a mo fth ei m p l e m e n t e da r c h it e c t u r e .Sinc eth erec eiv ed
s ig n a l s
a r e
c h a r a c t e r ize d
b y
v ery
w i d e
v ariations
o f
a m p l it u d e( inth er a n g eo f5 0 d B )a nA u t o m a t i cG a i nC o n t r o l
w a s
i m p l e m e n t e d
[ 7 ] .T h e
c irc u itw o r k sb y
e v a l u a tin g
th e
m a g n i t u d eo fth ec o m p l e x
s ig n a la n da p p l y in g
t oital o w -
p a s sfil te r.T h eA G C
ou tp u ts ig n a listh e nf e dt oth eR Fs ta g e
th rou g ha4b itD/ A
c onv e rte r.A n
a d d it io n a l
1b its ig n a lis
u s et oe n a b l eth eh ig hg a inm o d eo f th eL N Aw h e n th ein p u t
s ig n a lisb e l o wac ertainth re s h ol d .
F ig u re4.
A n8 0 2.1 1B P S Kb a s e b a n dc o m p l e xs ig n a la n dth ec o r r e l a t i o n
p e a k so b t a i n e du s i n gth e1 1c h ipB a r k e rc ode.T h ev is ib l ee n v e l o p e
i nth e
b a s e b a n ds ig n a l sisth eeffec to fth ec arrierfreq uenc yo f f s e t .
T h e
Ia n dQ
s ig n a l sa r efirs tl yp r o c e s s e db y
ac h a n n e l
m a t c h e d
fil te r,i m p l e m e n t e da sas l id in gc o r r e l a t o rw i t hth e
B a r k e rs e q u e n c e .T h iss te pa l l owst od e - s p r e a dth es ig n a la n d
t oa t t e n u a t eth e
effec ts
o fc h a n n e l
n o is e ,
m u l tip a th
f a d i n g
a n d
o t h e r
p r o p a g a t i o n
is s u e s .
Mo r e o v e r ,
th e
e x c e l l e n t
a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n
p r o p e r t i e s
o fth e
B a r k e r
s e q u e n c e
m a k e s
e a s ie rt oex trac ts y m b o ltim ing sa n d t or e m o v eth efreq uenc y
a n dp h a s ec arrieroffs e t.T h isisp os s ib l esinc eth ec o r r e l a t i o n
p r o d u c eas h a rpp e a kf o reac hrec eiv eds y m b o l( i.e .d a t ab it) .
T h is
iss h o w n
i nF ig .4.T h e
b its y nc h roniza tion
s ig n a l
is
o b t a i n e db yt r a c k i n gth ep e a kp o s it io n s ,th a tisd e t e c t e d b y
f i n d i n gth em a x i m u mv a l u ea m o n g2 2s a m p l e s( th ism e th od
d o e sn o tr e q u i r et os e ta ne x p l ic itth re s h ol dl e v e l ) .
F ig u re5 .
A ni n c o m i n g8 0 2.1 12 Mb p sc o m p l e xs ig n a lb e f o r ea n da fte r
c o r r e l a t i o na n dd e - r o t a t io n .T h ep o i n t so nth efirs t a n dth irdq u a d r a n ts h o w
ag re a te rd e n s ityb e c a u s eo fth eB P S Km o d u l a t e dp re a m b l e .
Ino r d e rt or e m o v eth ec arrierfreq uenc ya n dp h a s eo f f s e t
a nh a r dl im ite dC o s t a sl o o p
isu s e d
[ 8] .T h el o o pm u s tb e
c a p a b l e
o fs witc h ing ,
wh il ere c e iv ing
a
fra m e ,
b e t w e e n
a
B P S K
( 1 Mb p s
d a t a
a n d
p r e a m b l e s )
a n d
a
Q P S K
s ig n a l
( 2 Mb p s
d a ta ) .T h is
iso b t a i n i n g
c o n t r o l l i n gth e
l o o p
e r r o r
7 4
C h a n n e l
0
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
00
- - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -I- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1 .5 2
6 3
1 .5 4
1 .5 5
1 5 6
1 .5 7
1 .5 8
1 .6 9
1 .6
1 .6 1
1 6 2
Q
C h a n n e l
0
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
I- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
I- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
0
V W - V I
0
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
1 .5 2
5 3
1 .5 4
1 .5 5
1 5 6
1 .5 7
1 .5 8
1 .5 9
1 5
1 .5 1
1 6 2
) o
- - - - - - -
- - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - -- -
- - - - - - - - --
fu nc tion.
T h e
C o s t a s
l o o p
is
p r e c e d e d
b y
a
22: 1
d o w n s a m p l e r
sy nc h ronized
w i t h
th e
b it
t i m i n g
r e f e r e n c e
s ig na l .T h ism a k e sth el o o pb e h a v i o rm u c hm o r erob u s t w i t h
re s p e c tt on o is e ,
sinc e
itwil lo p e r a t em a i n l yo n
s i g n i f i c a n t
d a t as a m p l e s .A sc anb es e e nf r o mF ig .5th isp r o c e s s
isq u ite
effec tiv e,
sinc e
a
v ery
n o i s y
2 Mb p s
s ig n a l
h a s
b e e n
s u c c e s s fu l l yd e - rota te d .
A f t e r
th isp r o c e s s
a
d if f e r e n t ia l
d e c o d i n g
r e m o v e s
th e
r e m a i n i n g9 0 0o r1 8 0 0p h a s ea m b ig u ity .D i g i t a ld a t aa r et h e n
d e s c r a m b l e d
a n d
d e c o d e d ,
a n d
th e
C C IT T
C RC - 1 6
is
c o m p u t e d
ov erth ed a t ab e l o n g i n g
t oth ep h y s ic a l
h e a d e r.
F in a l l yd a t aa r ep a s s e dt oth eMA C
o rt oa ne x t e r n a lh os tf o r
f u r t h e rp r o c e s s in g .
IV .
Z IG B E ER E C E IV E RA R C H IT E C T U R E
T h e
IE E E
8 0 2.1 5 .4s t a n d a r d
e m p l o y s
a n
O f f s e t - Q P S K
( O-Q PSK )
m o d u l a t i o n
w i t h
a n
h a l f
s in e
p u l s e
s h a p in g
( s im il a rt oth eMi n i m u m
Sh iftK e y ingm od u l a tion) .AD S S S
s p r e a d in g
iso b t a i n e db y
u s i n g
1 6
q u a s i - o r t h o g o n a l
c od e s ,
eac hc o m p o s e db y3 2c h ipa n de n c o d i n g4d a tab it s( see
[ 4] ) .
T h e
c h ip p ing
r a t e
is2 Mc p s
a n d
th e
d a tar a t eo b t a i n e d
is
25 0 K b p s .E ac h3 2b itc odeisd iv id e di nt w o1 6b it
s u b - c o d e s
th a ta r e
s e p a ra te l ym o d u l a t e d
a n dm a p p e d
t oth e
Ia n dQ
c h a n n e l( F ig .6 ) .
- 1 -
2T ,
I- P ha s e
r
,
t
C
,
C3 0
0 - P h a s e
C -
C
C3 1
T im e
F ig u re6 .
Z i g B e eO - Q P S Km o d u l a t i o ns c h e m e .
An u m b e ro frec eiv era r c h i t e c t u r eh a sb e e np r o p o s e dt o
d e m o d u l a t es ig n a l sw i t hs im il a rc h arac teristic s[ 9 ] .Howev er
th e s eu s u a l l yn e e dt op e r f o r me x p e n s iv ep r o c e s s in gs te p s( in
t e r m
o fs i l i c o n
a r e a
a n d
n u m b e r
o fg a te s )
r e q u i r i n g
f o r
e x a m p l eap u l s es h a p em a t c h e dfil te r,a n dac arrierre c ov e ry
l o o p
f o rth e
c o h e r e n td e m o d u l a t io n .
T h e
s ig n a l s
o b t a i n e d
h a v e
t o
b e
y et
d e - s p r e a d e d
u s in g
1 6
p a ra l l e l
3 2
c h ip
c o r r e l a t o r s .
In
o r d e rt om a k e
th e
im p l e m e n t a t io n
a s
c o m p a c ta n d
effic ienta sp os s ib l e ,ad e d ic a t e da r c h i t e c t u r ew a su s e d .T h is
isb a s e do nan o n - c o h e r e n trec eiv era l g orith ma n d as p e c ia l
c o r r e l a t i o na n ds y nc h roniza tionb l oc k .
T h is
te c h niq u e
e x p l oits
th e
p h a s e
c ontinu ity
o f
a n
O - Q P S K
s ig n a lw i t hh a l fs i n ep u l s es h a p in g .T r a c k i n g
th e
p h a s ec h a n g eo fth erec eiv eds ig n a l
itisp os s ib l et oo b t a i n
i n f o r m a t i o na b o u tth et r a n s m i t t e dc h ip sa n dt h e irtim ing .In
p a rtic u l a rth ec irc u itf o l l o w sth edirec tiono fr o t a t i o n o f th e
i n c o m i n g
s ig n a l
v e c tor
( I+ j Q ) ,
a n d
its
c h a n g e s
u s in g
th e
f o l l o w i n g
e x p re s s ion ,
d e r iv e d
f r o m
th e
C o s t a s
l o o p
e r r o r
t e r mf o rQ P S K
s ig na l s :
A O
s g n( Q )- a Q
sg n( I)
aJ t
aJ t
T h ep h a s ei n c r e m e n ts ig n a l( AO,
s h o w nin Fig.7 )c o u l d
b eu s e dt orec onstru c tth et r a n s m i t t e dc h ip s ,
wh il e
itsze r o
c r o s s i n g sc anb eu s e da sat i m i n gr e f e r e n c e( th em inim u m
p e r i o db e t w e e nt w oze r oc rossing
ish a l fth ec h iptim e ) .In
th isc aseh o w e v e rb o t hth e s es te p sa r en o tnec essary .Infa c t,
in s t e a do fc o r r e l a t i n gth erec eiv edc h ip sw i t hth es p r e a d in g
c od e s ,itisp os s ib l et og e n e r a t ean e ws e to fc odes
th a tc anb e
d ir e c t l yu s e dw i t hth eA Os ig n a l( T a b l eI) .
T A B L E
I.S P R E A D IN GC O DE SU SE DF O RA \u00aeS IG N A L
D a t a
C h ipv a l u e s
Sy m b ol s
( c O,c l ...c 3 1 )
0 0 0 0
0 01 1 1 1 1 10 0 0 1 0 0 0 01 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 0 01 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
0 10 0
0 01 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 10 0 0 1 0 0 0 01 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 01 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 01 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 10 0 0 0
1 0 10
0 0 0 01 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 10 0 0 1
1 10 0
0 0 01 0 0 0 01 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 10
1 1 1 10 0 0 1 0 0 0 01 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 1
1 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 01 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1
0 0 1 1
1 0 0 1 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 01 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
0 1 0 1
1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 01 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0
01 1 1
1 10 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 01 1 1 0 1 1 1 10 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 01 1 1 1
10 1 1
1 1 1 10 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 01 1 1 0
1 1 01
1 1 10 1 1 1 10 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 01 1 1 0 1 1 1 10 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
Ith a sb e e nf o u n dth a tth e s ec odesr e t a inth ep r o p e r t i e so f
th eo r i g i n a lc od e s ,
i.e .th e y
c anb eo b t a i n e df r o m
as in g l e
c ode
th rou g h
r o t a t i o n
a n d
inv ersion.
T h e s e
p r o p e r t i e s
s im p l ifie sth er e a l i za t i o no f th ec o r r e l a t o rb l oc k ,th a tc anb e
i m p l e m e n t e d
a s
a
b itc o r r e l a t o ri nwh ic h
a l lth e
1 6
c ode
w o r d s( o b t a i n e dth rou g hab itr o t a t io n )a r es e ria l l yc h e c k e d
with inac odep e r i o d( i.e .3 2c h ip ) .T h e c odef o u n dt oh a v e
th e
m a x i m u m
c o r r e l a t i o n
v a l u e
is
s e l e c te d
b y
a
b ig g e s t
p ic k e r.T h e
ou tp u tso fth isp r o c e s sa r eth ed e c o d e d4d a t a
b it s( F ig .8 ) .T h ec o r r e l a t o risa l s ou s e dt oa c q u ireth e
t i m i n g
a n d
p h a s e
r e f e r e n c e
d u r i n g
th e
r e c e p t i o n
of each
f r a m e
p r e a m b l e .T h e s e
i n f o r m a t i o na r ep rov id e dt oth ef o l l o w i n g
p r o c e s s i n ge l e m e n t.
F ig u re7 .
T h eu p p e rfig u res h o w sth eA Os ig n a lo b t a i n e df o ra ni n c o m i n g
Z i g B e es ig na l .T h isp e riod ic a lp a tte rnr e f e r st oth es e q u e n c eo ff o u r
" O x O O "
by teso fth ep r e a m b l eth a tisu s e df o rb itt i m i n gsy nc h ronization.
T h e
l a s tb l o c k
isr e p r e s e n t e db y
th e
f r a m e
p r o c e s s in g
l og ic ,th a td e c o d e sth ed a t afie l d st os e n dt h e m t o th eMA C
7 5

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