Dr. PVSubbiah and RSRao
As is well known, the volume is always enclosed by a closed surface and the
surface is always is enclosed by closed path. The path, a directed curve, is a vector
direction being indicated with an arrow over the curve. The surface is, also by
definition a vector and is always surrounded by a closed path. The direction of the
surface at a any point over it can be found by wrapping the point with right hand.
The direction pointed by the right hand thumb when wrapped by the fingers around
the point gives the direction of the surface at that point.
A vector function over the closed surface can be related to the same vector
throughoutany volume enclosed by the surface through a theorem known as the
'Divergence theorem'. Similarly a vector function along a closed path can be related
to the same vector function overany surface enclosed by the path through 'Curl
This theorem connects surface integral with volume integral. In word form it can
be stated as 'the integral of the normal component of a vector over a closed
surface is equal to the integral of the divergence of the same vector through any
volume enclosed by that surface.' Analytically
This theorem connects line integral with surface integral. In word form it can be
stated as 'the integral of the tangential component of a vector around a closed
path is equal to the integral of the normal component of the curl of the same
vector through any surface enclosed by the path.' Mathematically
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