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Notes_microwaves

Notes_microwaves

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Published by: api-20008301 on Dec 04, 2009
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03/18/2014

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_______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Microwave Engineering
Dr.PVS&RSR
__________________________________________________________________________
1
MICROWAVE

ENGINEERING
by
Dr. PVSubbiah and RSRao

_______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Microwave Engineering
Dr.PVS&RSR
__________________________________________________________________________
2
Vector Identities:
Triple Products:
\u2660
(
)
(
)
(
)
A BC
B CA C AB
\u2022 \u00d7 =\u2022 \u00d7 =\u2022 \u00d7
\u2660
(
) (
) (
)
A BC
BC A CAB
\u00d7\u00d7 =
\u2022 \u2212
\u2022
Product rules:
\u2660
() ( ) ( )
fg
f
g
g f
\u2207
= \u2207+ \u2207
\u2660
(
)
(
)
(
) (
) (
)
A B
A
B B
A
A
B B
A
\u2207 \u2022 = \u00d7 \u2207\u00d7 + \u00d7 \u2207\u00d7 + \u2022\u2207 + \u2022\u2207
\u2660
() (
)
( )
f
A
f
A A
f
\u2207\u2022
= \u2207\u2022 + \u2022 \u2207
\u2660
(
)
A
B
\u2207\u2022 \u00d7 =
(
)
(
)
B
A A
B
\u2022 \u2207\u00d7 \u2212 \u2022 \u2207\u00d7
\u2660
() (
)
( )
fA
f
A A
f
\u2207\u00d7
= \u2207\u00d7 \u2212 \u00d7 \u2207
\u2660
(
) (
) (
)
(
) (
)
A B
B
A A
B A
B B
A
\u2207\u00d7 \u00d7 = \u2022\u2207 \u2212 \u2022\u2207 + \u2207\u2022 \u2212 \u2207\u2022
Second derivatives:
\u2660
(
)0
A
\u2207\u2022\u2207\u00d7 =
\u2660
(
) (
)
2
A
A
A
\u2207\u00d7 \u2207\u00d7 =\u2207 \u2207\u2022 \u2212\u2207
\u2660
( )
2
f
f
\u2207\u2022 \u2207 =\u2207
\u2660
( )0
f
\u2207\u00d7 \u2207 =
Fundamental theorems:

As is well known, the volume is always enclosed by a closed surface and the
surface is always is enclosed by closed path. The path, a directed curve, is a vector
direction being indicated with an arrow over the curve. The surface is, also by
definition a vector and is always surrounded by a closed path. The direction of the
surface at a any point over it can be found by wrapping the point with right hand.
The direction pointed by the right hand thumb when wrapped by the fingers around
the point gives the direction of the surface at that point.

\u2022In vector calculus, length and differential length, surface and
differential surface are vector quantities.
\u2022The volume and differential volumes are scalar quantities.
_______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Microwave Engineering
Dr.PVS&RSR
__________________________________________________________________________
3

A vector function over the closed surface can be related to the same vector
throughoutany volume enclosed by the surface through a theorem known as the
'Divergence theorem'. Similarly a vector function along a closed path can be related
to the same vector function overany surface enclosed by the path through 'Curl
theorem,.

Gradient theorem
In word form it can be stated as 'the integral of the tangential component of
gradient of a scalar function along a path from 'a' to'b ' is the difference of the
function values at 'a' and ' b' i.e.( )
f aan d( )
f b.'
( )
() ()
ba
f dl f b
f a
\u2207\u2022 =
\u2212
\u222b
Divergence theorem or Gauss theorem

This theorem connects surface integral with volume integral. In word form it can
be stated as 'the integral of the normal component of a vector over a closed
surface is equal to the integral of the divergence of the same vector through any
volume enclosed by that surface.' Analytically

(
)
A d
A da
\u03c4
\u2207\u2022
=
\u2022
\u222b
\u222b
\ue000
Curl theorem or Stokes theorem

This theorem connects line integral with surface integral. In word form it can be
stated as 'the integral of the tangential component of a vector around a closed
path is equal to the integral of the normal component of the curl of the same
vector through any surface enclosed by the path.' Mathematically

(
)
A da
A dl
\u2207\u00d7 \u2022 =
\u2022
\u222b
\u222b
\ue000
Significance:
\u2022These are useful in converting the Maxwell's equations from point form
to integral form and vice versa.
\u2022They relate a surface integral to its corresponding volume integral and
also a line integral to its corresponding surface integral.

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