I suppose t he vitality of a group, an individual or a society is measured by t he extent to which it posses courage and above all, creative imagination. If that imagination is lacking our growth becomes more and more st unt ed, which is a sign of decay. What t hen is happening. Today? Are we trying to improve in this respect or are we merely functioning somewhere on the surface without touching the reality which is afflict ing on t he surface wit hout t ouching t he realit y which is afflict ing the world & which may result in political conflict , economic warfare or world war? So, when there are discussions on t he concept of man as visualized in t he East ern Ideal or The West ern Ideal. They interest me greatly from a historical point of view and from a cultural point of view, although I have always resist ed t his idea of dividing t he world int o t he orient and occident , I do not believe in such divisions. There have, of course, been differences in racial and nat ion of out look and in ideals but to talk of the east & west as such as little meaning. I can see the difference between an industrialized and a non-industrialised country. I think the difference, say, between India and Europe in t he middle ages, would not have been very great and would have been comparable t o t he difference bet ween any of t he great count ries of Asia t oday. I feel t hat we t hink roughly because we are misled in our approach. Differences have crept in and been int ensified by t his process of indust rialization & mechanizat ion which has promot ed mat erial well being t remendously and which has been a blessing t o humanit y. At t he same t ime, it is corroding t he life of t he mind & t hereby encouraging a process of self dest ruct ion. I am not for t he moment t alking or t hinking about wars and t he like we have seen in hist ory races come up and gradually f ade away in Asia, in Europe and ot her places. Are we wit nessing t he same t hing t oday? It may be t hat t his will not t ake effect in our lifet ime. In t he past anyway, one great consolat ion was t hat t hings happened only in one part icular great er of t he world. If t here was a collapse in one part of t he world, t he ot her part carried on. No part will be left to survive, as it could in older times. During the so called Dark ages of Europe, t here were bright periods in Asia, in China, in India, in t he middle east and else where. In t he old days if progress was limit ed, disast er was also limit ed in ext ent and int ensit y. Today, when we have arrived at a period of great disast er and it is a lit t le difficult for us t o choose a middle way which would unable us to achieve a litt le progress and, at t he same t ime t o limit t he scope of disast er. That is t he maj or quest ion. A person who has t o carry a burden of responsibilit y is great er t roubled by t he pract ical aspect s of t his quest ion. Am I right in saying t hat t he ment al life of t he world is in a process of det eriorat ion, chiefly because t he environment t hat has been creat ed by t he Indust rial Revolut ion does not give t ime or opport unit y t o individuals t o t hink? I do not deny t hat t oday t here are many great thinkers but it is quite likely that they might be submerged in the mass of unthinking humanity. We are dealing with and talking a great deal about democracy and I have lit t le doubt t hat democracy is t he best of all t he various met hods available t o us for t he governance of human beings. At t he same t ime, we are using t oday-by t oday I mean t he last t wo decades or so- t he emergence of democracy in a somewhat uncont rolled form. When we t hink of democracy, we normally think of it in the rather limited sense of the 19th cent ury or t he early 20th cent ury use of t he t erm. Owing t o t he remarkable t echnological growt h, somet hing has happened since t hen and meanwhile democracy has also spread. The result is t hat we have vast masses of human beings brought up by the Industrial Revolution, who are not encouraged or given an opportunity t o think much. They live a life which, from the point of view of physical comfort, is incomparably better t han it has been in any previous generat ion, but t hey seldom have a chance t o t hink. And yet in a democrat ic syst em, it is t his vast mass of human beings t hat will ult imat ely govern or elect t hose who govern.
(1) Vit alit y and courage endanger creat ive imaginat ion.
(2) Our at t empt s t o grow are becoming more and more st unt ed.
(3) Decadence st unt s t he facult y of imaginat ion.
In many underdeveloped countries, the state plays an important and increasingly varied role in economic development today. There are four general arguments, all of them related, for state participation in economic development. First, the entrance requirements in terms of financial and capit al equipment are very large in indust ries, and t he size of t hese obst acles will sere as barriers to entry on the part of private investors. One can imagine that these obstacles are imposing in indust ries such as st eel product ion, aut omobiles, elect ronics, and part s of t he t ext iles indust ry. In addition, there are what Myint calls \u201c technical indivisibilities in social overhead capital.\u201d Public utilities, transport, and communication facilities must be in place before industrial development can occur, and they do not lend themselves to small-scale improvements. A related argument cent res on t he demand side of t he economy. This economy is seen as fragment ed, disconnect ed, and incapable of using input s from ot her part s of t he economy. Consequent ly, economic act ivit y in one part of t he economy does not generat e t he dynamism in ot her sect ors t hat is expect ed in more cohesive economies. Industrialization necessarily involves many different, sectors; economic ent erprises will t hrive best in an environment in which t hey draw on input s from relat ed economic sect ors and, in t urn, release t heir own goods for indust rial ut ilizat ion wit hin t heir own economies. A third argument concerns the low-level equilibrium trap in which less developed countries find themselves. At subsistence levels, societies consume exactly what they produce. There is no remaining surplus for reinvest ment . As per-capit a income rises, however, t he addit ional income will not be used for saving and invest ment . Inst ead, it will have t he effect of increasing t he populat ion that will eat up the surplus and force the society to its former subsistence position. Fortunately, after a certain point, the rate of population growth will decrease; economic growth will intersect with and eventually outstrip population growth. The private sector, however, will not be able to provide the one-shot large dose of capital to push economic growth beyond those levels where population increases eat up the incremental advances. The final argument concerns the relationship between delayed development and the state. Countries wishing to industrialize today have more competitors, and these competitors occupy a more differnentiated industrial terrain t han previously. This means t hat t he available niches in t he int ernat ional syst em are more limit ed. For t oday\u2019 s indust rializers, t herefore, t he process of indust rializat ion cannot be a haphazard affair, not can the pace, content, and direction be left, solely to market forces. Part of the reason for strong state presence, then, relates specifically to the competitive international environment in which modern count ries and firms must operat e.
(2) int ervent ion of t he st at e in economic development
(3) t he t endency for societ ies t o produce more t han t hey can use
(4) t he fragment ed and disconnect ed nat ure of t he demand side of t he economy.
(2) modern and compet it ive
(3) nat urally and logically connect ed
(4) cont aining many different sect ors
(1) Somet hing huge
(2) somet hing t hat st rikes a pose
(3) somet hing t hat obt rudes on ot hers
Scient ist s seeking view new ways t o repair damaged art eries and ailing heart s have coaxed st em cells from a human embryo into forming tiny blood vessels. It\u2019 s the first time human embryonic st em cells have been nurt ured t o t he point where t hey will organize int o blood vessels that could nourish the body, according to Robert Langer, leader of a laboratory team at the Massachusetts Inst it ut e of Technology. But it isn\u2019 t likely t o be t he last , as scient ist s pursue research int o uses for st em cells despit e debat e over t he et hics of using t he cells. The new development was report ed in Tuesday\u2019 s online issue of proceedings of t he Nat ional Academy of Sciences. Dr. John Gearhart of t he Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine said research was a \u201c nice illust rat ion\u201d of how st em cells can serve as a source of various t ypes of cells, in t his case for blood vessels. \u201c I t hink t his is t errific\u201d said Gearhart , who was not part of t he research t eam. \u201c It \u2019 s anot her good example of t he isolat ion of an important cell type from human embryonic stem cells.\u201d \u201c These are the kinds of papers we are going t o see a lot of ,\u201d Gearhart added. Langer said t he work showed t hat endot helial cells could be made from human embryonic stem cells. Endothelial cells have veins, arteries and lymph tissue. They are key t o t he st ruct ures t hat carry blood t hroughout t he body. He said t hat if t he t echnique we refined, scient ist s would event ually be able t o make in t he laborat ory blood vessels t hat could be used t o replace diseased art eries in t he body: \u201c There are t housands of operat ions a year now where doct ors t ake vessels from one part of t he body and t ransplant t hem t o anot her,\u201d said Langer. Eventually, he said, such vessels might be made outside the body from embryonic stem cells. Langer said endothelial cells also might be used t o restore circulat ion to cells damaged by heart attacks. He said the processed stem cells may be able to reestablish blood flow to hearts failing due t o blocked art eries. The research was conduct ed under a privat e grant , but Langer said t he cell cult ure used is one of 61 worldwide t hat have been approved by t he Nat ional Inst it ut es of Healt h for federally funded research. The use of embryonic st em cells is cont roversial because extract ing the cells kills a living human embryo. President Bush last summer decided that federal funding would be permitted only for stem cell cult ures that already exist ed and were made from embryos that were to be discarded by fertility clinics. The aim was to prevent further killing for research purposes of ot her human embryos. Langer said his lab will seek f ederal money t o cont inue research
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