Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Option D.2 - Species and Speciation

Option D.2 - Species and Speciation

Ratings: (0)|Views: 134|Likes:
Published by IB Screwed
Notes for IB Biology Option D - Evolution, topic 2: Species and Speciation.
Covers allele frequency and gene pools, the term species, barriers between gene pools, polyploidy, allopatric and sympatric speciation, adaptive radiation, convergent and divergent evolution, gradualism and punctuated equilibrium.
Notes for IB Biology Option D - Evolution, topic 2: Species and Speciation.
Covers allele frequency and gene pools, the term species, barriers between gene pools, polyploidy, allopatric and sympatric speciation, adaptive radiation, convergent and divergent evolution, gradualism and punctuated equilibrium.

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: IB Screwed on Aug 09, 2014
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/23/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Option D.2
 –
 Species and Speciation
D.2.1
 –
 Define allele frequency and gene pool
Allele Frequency
 – 
 The frequency of an allele, as a proportion of all alleles of the gene in the population. It is measured on a scale from 0.0 to 1.0 Gene Pool
 – 
 All the genes in an interbreeding population
D.2.2
 –
 
State that evolution involves a change in allele frequency in a population’s gene
pool over a number of generations
Selective pressures cause certain alleles to be passed onto the next generation with greater frequency that others.
D.2.3
 –
 Discuss the definition of the term species
Species
 is a difficult word to define and biologists are yet to settle on any one meaning. Before biologists had any understanding of genetics, species were defined according to the morphological characteristics of the organisms. Although still useful, this ignores the fact that species can evolve. When a species has diverged into two forms with slightly different characteristics, it can be challenging to decide whether they are different enough to be classed as different species, or whether they are still close enough to be one species. Similarity within a species is maintained by interbreeding. On the other hand, organisms of two different species are morphologically distinct because they do not interbreed. Hence, the definition of a species is:
a group of actually or potentially interbreeding populations, with a common gene pool, which are reproductively isolated from other such groups.
 
 
The definition works, but has several issues:
 
Sibling species
 
 – 
 species that cannot interbreed but have very similar appearance. It makes them difficult to identify as being different.
 
Interbreeding species
 
 – 
 species that, although morphologically very different, can still interbreed. Plant species in particular can reproduce to form hybrids of two species.
 
Asexually reproducing species
 – 
 when organisms reproduce asexually, there is never any interbreeding, the definition does not readily apply.
 
Fossils
 – 
 without living organisms available, it is impossible to determine from morphology whether interbreeding could occur.
D.2.4
 –
 Describe three examples of barriers between gene pools Geographical isolation
 
 – 
 Migration can lead to geographical isolation of populations. This is a barrier between gene pools that can cause two distinct species to develop. It is a form of allopatric speciation.
Hybrid infertility
 
 – 
 frequently due to polyploidy. Species with different numbers of chromosome sets will have offspring that is sterile.
Temporal isolation
 
 – 
 organisms may reach sexual maturity at different times. Although they exist in the same geographical area as other organisms, they have a temporal barrier between gene pools and cannot interbreed.
Behavioural isolation
 
 – 
 very similar to temporal isolation, as behaviour generally affects whether species are available for breeding at the same time. For example, species that hibernate or undergo metamorphosis may emerge for reproducing at different times.
 
D.2.5
 –
 Explain how polyploidy can contribute to speciation
In plants like the
Rumex 
 genus, the species have a wide array of chromosome set numbers which create barriers between the gene pools. Some a diploid with 20 chromosomes, whilst others have 40 chromosomes and are tetraploid. There are even hexaploid and decaploid species. If a hybrid is produced between the diploid and tetraploid species, its gametes would be triploid and thus infertile, since meiosis cannot be completed in triploid cells.
D.2.6
 –
 Compare allopatric and sympatric speciation Speciation
 
 – 
 the formation of a new species by splitting of an existing species
Sympatric
 
 – 
 in the same geographical area
Allopatric
 
 – 
 in different geographical areas
D.2.7
 –
 Outline the process of adaptive radiation
Speciation will occur repeatedly so that one ancestral species will give rise to a number of new species. This is an example of
divergent evolution
. The new species, despite their common ancestry, will diversify to fill different niches and avoid competition with each other: called
adaptive radiation
. It occurs in two potential situations: when the species have an advantage over existing ones, or where there are opportunities that no other species are using. The evidence for adaptive radiation can be seen in the bone structure of mammalian pentadactyl limbs.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->