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Each IP address has two parts--a network ID and a host ID. The network ID identifies a physical network. All hosts on the same network require the same network ID, which should be unique to the internetwork.
The host ID identifies a workstation, server, router, or other TCP/IP host within a network. The host ID must be unique to the network ID. Each TCP/IP host is identified by a logical IP address. A unique IP address is required for all hosts and network components that communicate using TCP/IP, as shown in the following illustration.
There are two formats for referencing an IP address--binary and dotted decimal notation. Each IP address is 32 bits long and is composed of four 8-bit fields, called octets. The octets are separated by periods and represent a decimal number in the range 0\u2013 255. The 32 bits of the IP address are allocated to the network ID and host ID.
You should be able to define the assigned bit values in an octet and convert the bits from binary code to a decimal format. In binary format, each bit in an octet has an assigned decimal value. When each bit is converted to decimal format, the highest value in the octet is 255. Each octet is converted separately.
A bit that is set to 0 always has a zero value. A bit that is set to 1 can be converted to a decimal value. The low-order bit represents a decimal value of one. The high-order bit represents a decimal value of 128. The highest decimal value of an octet is 255--that is, when all bits are set to 1.
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