Chapter 29An Overview of Land Plant Evolution1. Describe four shared derived homologies that link charophyceans and land plants.
The complexes that produce cellulose are rose shaped in both charophyceans and land plants. Next both have peroxisome enzymes that help minimize the loss of organic products from photorespiration. The structure of their flagellated sperm is very similar. Finally, both form a phragmoplast during cell division.
2. Distinguish among the kingdoms Plantae, Streptophyta, and Viridiplantae. Note which of these is used inthe textbook.
Plantae is used in the textbook and refers to plants that form embryos. Streptophyta would include charophyceans,green algae, and related groups. Viridiplantae would include noncharophyceans.
3. Describe five characteristics that distinguish land plants from charophycean algae. Explain how thesefeatures are adaptive for life on land.
embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and buds of shoots that supplies cells forplant to grow in length
elongation and branching of the shoots and roots maximize their exposure toenvironmental resources
Alternation of generations
life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, sporophyte, and amulticellular haploid form, gametophyte; characteristics of plants and some algae
capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop
creation of sporopollenin makes the walls of spores very tough and resistant to harshenvironments
gametes are formed
the production of eggs and sperm, spores, allowed for cross reproduction
parental tissues provide the developing embryo with nutrients
4. Define and distinguish among the stages of the alternation of generations life cycle.
There is the haploid and diploid stage. The haploid stage starts as a single spore, which undergoes mitosis to forma gametophyte. The gametophyte produces gametes, which fuse during fertilization to form a diploid zygote. Thisstarts the diploid stage. The diploid zygote undergoes mitosis to form a multicellular sporophyte – which releasesspores.
5. Describe evidence that suggests that plants arose roughly 475 million years ago.
Spores were extracted from a rock dated 475 million years old. Unlike other spores discovered, these spores weresurrounded by the plant cuticle material common in modern plants. Molecular data also supports this age.
Bryophytes6. List and distinguish among the three phyla of bryophytes. Briefly describe the characteristics of eachgroup.
Hepatophyla: liverworts (gametophores look like little trees)Anthocerophyta: hornworts (sporophyte resembles a blade of grass)Bryophyta: moss (mostly gametophyte dominated)