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Bài toán

Bài toán

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Published by: api-26453900 on Dec 04, 2009
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03/18/2014

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B\u00e0i to\u00e1n 3
Cho (O) v\u00e0 \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng xy \u1edf ngo\u00e0i (O). K\u1ebb OA vu\u00f4ng g\u00f3c v\u1edbi xy. Qua A k\u1ebb m\u1ed9t c\u00e1t tuy\u1ebfn c\u1eaft (O) t\u1ea1i B
v\u00e0 C. TI\u1ebfp tuy\u1ebfn t\u1ea1i B v\u00e0 C c\u1eaft xy l\u1ea7n l\u01b0\u1ee3t t\u1ea1i D v\u00e0 E. Ch\u1ee9ng minh r\u1eb1ng A l\u00e0 trung \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a \u0111o\u1ea1n th\u1eb3ng
DE.

gtxy \u1edf ngo\u00e0i (O)OA xyOB By t\u1ea1i BOC CE t\u1ea1i C
\u22a5
\u22a5
\u22a5

KL: AE = AD
Ph\u00e2n t\u00edch, t\u00ecm c\u00e1ch gi\u1ea3i
C\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e1ch \u0111\u1ec3 \u0111i \u0111\u1ebfn ch\u1ee9ng minh AE = AD, \u1edf \u0111\u00e2y ch\u1ec9 xin n\u00eau ra m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch
+ Mu\u1ed1n ch\u1ee9ng minh A l\u00e0 trung \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a DE, ta ch\u1ee9ng minh AE = AD\
+ Mu\u1ed1n ch\u1ee9ng minh AE = AD c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e1ch, ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n ta ch\u1ee9ng minh\u2206OAE=\u2206OAD
+ Mu\u1ed1n ch\u1ee9ng minh\u2206OAE =\u2206OAD ta ch\u1ee9ng minh OE = OD
+ Mu\u1ed1n ch\u1ee9ng minh OE = OD ta ch\u1ee9ng minh\u2206OCE =\u2206OAD
+ Mu\u1ed1n ch\u1ee9ng minh\u2206OCE =\u2206OAD ta ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ee9ng minh COE=BOD
+ Mu\u1ed1n ch\u1ee9ng minh COE=BOD ta ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ee9ng minh COE= CAE v\u00e0 BOD=CAE
+ Ta c\u00f3: DOB=CAE v\u00ec 2 g\u00f3c c\u00f9ng b\u00f9 v\u1edbi BAD do t\u1ee9 gi\u00e1c ABOD n\u1ed9i ti\u1ebfp; COE=CAE v\u00ec t\u1ee9 gi\u00e1c COAE

n\u1ed9i ti\u1ebfp\u21d2\u0111pcm
2. L\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i t\u00f3m t\u1eaft
T\u1ee9 gi\u00e1c COAE n\u1ed9i ti\u1ebfp \u21d2 COE=CAE (c\u00f9ng ch\u1eafng cung CE)
T\u1ee9 gi\u00e1c ABOD n\u1ed9i ti\u1ebfp\u21d2 DOB= CAE (Do 2 g\u00f3c c\u00f9ng b\u00f9 v\u1edbi BAD)
\u21d2COE=DOB
OCE= ODA OE=OD
OAE= OAD AD=AE
\u21d2\u22bf
\u22bf
\u21d2
\u21d2\u22bf
\u22bf
\u21d2
Khai th\u00e1c b\u00e0i to\u00e1n

Nh\u1eadn x\u00e9t 1: V\u1edbi b\u00e0i to\u00e1n th\u00ec \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng xy cho tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u1edf ngo\u00e0i (O) t\u1ee9c l\u00e0 xy \u2229(O) = \u03d5. Ta h\u00e3y \u0111\u1eb7t v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 thay \u0111\u1ed5i \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n b\u00e0i to\u00e1n, ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng xy cho tr\u01b0\u1edbc c\u1eaft (O) t\u1ea1i hai \u0111i\u1ec3m: xy \u2229(O) = {M,N}. Thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp b\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1, khi \u0111\u00f3 A c\u00f3 ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 trung \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a \u0111o\u1ea1n th\u1eb3ng DE n\u1eefa

kh\u00f4ng? Ta c\u00f3 b\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1
B\u00e0i to\u00e1n 3.1
Cho \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng xy c\u1eaft \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng tr\u00f2n (O) t\u1ea1i hai \u0111i\u1ec3m M v\u00e0 N. K\u1ebb OA vu\u00f4ng g\u00f3c v\u1edbi xy. Qua A k\u1ebb m\u1ed9t c\u00e1t

tuy\u1ebfn c\u1eaft (O) t\u1ea1i, B v\u00e0 C. Ti\u1ebfp tuy\u1ebfn t\u1ea1i B v\u00e0 C l\u1ea7n l\u01b0\u1ee3t c\u1eaft xy t\u1ea1i D v\u00e0 E. So s\u00e1nh \u0111\u1ecd d\u00e0i hai \u0111o\u1ea1n AE v\u00e0
AD
gtxy\u2229O={M,N}OA xyOB BD t\u1ea1i BOC CE t\u1ea1i C
\u22a5
\u22a5
\u22a5

Kl:So s\u00e1nhAE v\u00e0 AD
B\u1ea1n \u0111\u1ecdc t\u1ef1 ch\u1ee9ng minh b\u00e0i to\u00e1n 3.1 t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1 b\u00e0i to\u00e1n 3, ta v\u1eabn c\u00f3 k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 AE = AD
Nh\u1eadn x\u00e9t 2: \u1ede b\u00e0i to\u00e1n 3 ta \u0111\u00e3 x\u00e9t tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p xy\u2229 (O) =\u03d5 v\u00e0 \u1edf b\u00e0i to\u00e1n 3.1 ta \u0111\u00e3 x\u00e9t tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p xy\u2229

(O) = {M, N}. Ta x\u00e9t n\u1ed1t tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p xy\u2229(O)= {A}, thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp b\u00e0i t\u00e1on t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1. Khi \u0111\u00f3 A c\u00f3 c\u00f2n l\u00e0 trung

\u0111i\u1ec3m \u0111o\u1ea1n th\u1eb3ng AE n\u1eefa kh\u00f4ng? Ta c\u00f3 b\u00e0i to\u00e1n t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1
B\u00e0i to\u00e1n 3.2
Cho \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng xy ti\u1ebfp x\u00fac v\u1edbi \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng tr\u00f2n t\u00e2m O t\u1ea1i M. K\u1ebb OA vu\u00f4ng g\u00f3c v\u1edbi xy. Qua A k\u1ebb m\u1ed9t c\u00e1t

tuy\u1ebfn c\u1eaft (O) t\u1ea1i B v\u00e0 C. Ti\u1ebfp tuy\u1ebfn t\u1ea1i B v\u00e0 C l\u1ea7n l\u01b0\u1ee3t c\u1eaft xy t\u1ea1i D v\u00e0 E. So s\u00e1nh \u0111\u1ed9 d\u00e0i 2 \u0111o\u1ea1n th\u1eb3ng AE
v\u00e0 AD
gtxy\u2229O={A}OA xyOB By t\u1ea1i BOC CE t\u1ea1i C
\u22a5
\u22a5
\u22a5

kl: So s\u00e1nh AE v\u00e0 AD
V\u1edbi gi\u1ea3 thi\u1ebft \u0111\u00e3 cho, b\u1ea1n \u0111\u1ecdc d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng nh\u1eadn th\u1ea5y: M = A = B
Ti\u1ebfp tuy\u1ebfn t\u1ea1i B tr\u00f9ng v\u1edbi \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng xy\u21d2c\u00f3 v\u00f4 s\u1ed1 \u0111i\u1ec3m D, khi \u0111\u00f3 D kh\u00f4ng x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u21d2B\u00e0i to\u00e1n

kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 l\u01b0\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i

Nh\u1eadn x\u00e9t 3: \u0110\u1ec3 \u00fd \u0111\u1ebfn \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n c\u00e1t tuy\u1ebfn qua A c\u1eaft (O) t\u1ea1i B v\u00e0 C. Nh\u01b0 v\u1eady trong s\u1ed1 c\u00e1c c\u00e1t tuy\u1ebfn qua A
\u0111\u1ec3 c\u0103ts (O) t\u1ea1i 2 \u0111i\u1ec3m B v\u00e0 C s\u1ebd t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i 1 c\u00e1t tuy\u1ebfn \u0111i qua t\u00e2m )\u21d2Ti\u1ebfp tuy\u1ebfn t\u1ea1i B v\u00e0 C song song v\u1edbi
\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng xy\u21d2 b\u00e0i to\u00e1n kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i

B\u00e0i to\u00e1n 1 (187)

Cho 3 \u0111i\u1ec3m A, B , C kh\u00f4ng th\u1eb3ng hang, ta l\u1ea5y theo th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 c\u00e1c \u0111i\u1ec3m D v\u00e0 E tr\u00ean c\u00e1c \u0111o\u1ea1n th\u1eb3ng BA v\u00e0 CA sao cho BD = CE. G\u1ecdi M, N l\u00e0 trung \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a BC v\u00e0 DE, \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng qua MN l\u1ea7n l\u01b0\u1ee3t c\u1eaft AB v\u00e0 AC t\u1ea1i P v\u00e0 Q. Ch\u1ee9ng minh r\u1eb1ng g\u00f3c MPB b\u1eb1ng g\u00f3c MQC

gtA, B, C kh\u00f4ng th\u1eb3ng h\u00e0ngBD=CEMB=MC;ND=NE

kl: MPB=MQC
1. Ph\u00e2n t\u00edch, t\u00ecm c\u00e1ch gi\u1ea3i
V\u1edbi gi\u1ea3 thi\u1ebft \u0111\u00e3 cho c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e1ch \u0111i \u0111\u1ebfn ch\u1ee9ng minh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c MPB=MQC, sau \u0111\u00e2y xin n\u00eau ra m\u1ed9t trong

s\u1ed1 nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e1ch \u0111\u00f3. G\u1ecdi O l\u00e0 trung \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a DC.
Mu\u1ed1n ch\u1ee9ng minh MPB=MQC t a ch\u1ee9ng minh QPA=MQC
(a)
Mu\u1ed1n ch\u1ee9ng minh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c (a) ta ch\u1ee9ng minh MQC=MNO v\u00e0 QPA=NMO
(b)
Mu\u1ed1n ch\u1ee9ng minh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c (b) ta ch\u1ee9ng minh ON//QC v\u00e0 OM//AB
(c)
Mu\u1ed1n ch\u1ee9ng minh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c (c) ta ch\u1ee9ng minh OD=OC v\u00e0 ND=NE ; OD=OC v\u00e0 MB=MC (d)

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