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Assessment of the Quality of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation in the Atankwidi Sub-Basin of the White Volta Basin, Ghana

Assessment of the Quality of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation in the Atankwidi Sub-Basin of the White Volta Basin, Ghana

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Published by Alexander Decker
The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). Science, Technology and Medicine Journals Call for Academic Manuscripts
The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). Science, Technology and Medicine Journals Call for Academic Manuscripts

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Published by: Alexander Decker on Aug 11, 2014
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Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.4' No.1"' 2#14
1
Assessment of the Quality of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation in the Atankwidi Sub-Basin of the White Volta Basin, Ghana
Sauel )arnie
1*
' +eohre, . nornu
2
 an/ )enon, ola ortatsi
3
 1.
 
0eartent of griusiness' &alle, &iew niersit,' echian 5aus 2.
 
0eartent of 5iil ngineering' wae N7ruah niersit, of Science an/ echnolog,' uasi 3.
 
5SIR- ater Research Institute' ccra *ail of the correson/ing author9 sauel.arnie:u.e/u.gh 
Abstract
he otential use of shallow groun/water for sall-scale /r, season irrigation is a 7e, issue for irrigation /eeloent in the ari/ ;one of +hana. <arers within the tan7wi/i su-asin of the hite &olta )asin are increasingl, a/oting groun/water as a source of irrigation water /ue to the unaailailit, of surface water /uring the /r, season. =oweer the >ualit, of the groun/water an/ its suitailit, for irrigation is not 7nown' hence the nee/ to assess the >ualit, an/ its suitailit, in or/er to ensure sustainailit, in the alication an/  ossile e?ansion of groun/water irrigation in the area. wo ain water t,es (5a-@g-=5%
3
 an/ Na-@g-5a-=5%
3
! hae een /eterine/ using the Pier /iagra. he relatie aun/ance of cations in the groun/water was foun/ to e in the /ecreasing or/er of Na
A
 B 5a
2A
 B  
A
 B @g
2A
 B <e
2A
. Siilarl,' that of anions was foun/ to hae a /ecreasing or/er of =5%
3-
 B S%
42-
 B 5l
-
B P%
42-
 B N%
3-
B <
-
. +roun/water in the area ha/ low SR an/ low to e/iu salinit, ha;ar/. =oweer' agnesiu ha;ar/ an/ al7alinit, roles are li7el, to liit its use for irrigation.
eywords!
Shallow +roun/water' =,/rocheical facies' Irrigation ater Cualit,.
"# Introduction
+loall, there is a strong ositie relationshi etween higher /ensit, of irrigation an/ lower oert, rates' as Diton
et al.
 (2##3! in/icates. In frica' onl, 3E of crolan/ is irrigate/ an/ the region has e?erience/ er, little re/uction in oert, in the 1$$#s (orl/ )an7' 2###!. In contrast' those regions that hae the greatest  roortion of cultiate/ area irrigate/ (nael, ast sia' Pacific' North frica an/ @i//le ast! hae e?erience/ the greatest oert, re/uction. hat of +hana is ut at #.#2 E as at the en/ of 2##8. Irrigation of soe of these arale lan/s coul/ not aterialise /ue to the roFecte/ caital inoleent in channeling surface water oer long /istances to the irrigale lan/s. he use of han/-/ug wells enales the utili;ation of shallow groun/water for irrigate/ ro/uction of egetales an/ cash cros /uring the /r, season an/' therefore' roi/es an alternatie source of incoe for farers an/  oor househol/s. <or instance' the large scale ro/uction of shallot an/ other egetales using shallow groun/water in the eta Stri has roi/e/ enorous incoe to the in/igenous inhaitants (ortatsi an/ g,e7u' 2###!. In ost cases' Shallow +roun/water Irrigation (S+I! has /eeloe/ without an, goernent or /onor inoleent. <arers in the hite &olta )asin an/ the tan7wi/i su-asin to e secific where this stu/, focuses heail, rel, on shallow groun/water as a source of irrigation water /ue to the unaailailit, of surface water in the /r, season. s this is farer /rien' little is 7nown aout the >ualit, of water use/ for the ro/uction of egetales which crucial so far as faring is concern. his is ecause' esi/es affecting cro ,iel/ an/ soil h,sical con/itions' irrigation water >ualit, can affect fertilit, nee/s' irrigation s,ste erforance an/ how the water can e alie/. herefore' 7nowle/ge of irrigation water >ualit, is critical to un/erstan/ing what anageent changes are necessar, for long-ter ro/uctiit,. oe all' water >ualit, anal,sis in general' an/ not liite/ to irrigation water' is one of the ost iortant issues in groun/water stu/ies. It reeals the suitailit, of the water for /ifferent uroses an/ also hels to un/erstan/ the ossile change in >ualit, roal, /ue to roc7-water interaction or anthroogenic effects. he ain oFectie of this aer is therefore to assess the shallow groun/water >ualit, for irrigation in the stu/, area which will infor oth olic, an/ /ecision a7ers so far as S+I in the area is concern.
$# Study Area
2.1 Location and Size
he tan7wi/i su-asin is locate/ etween latitu/es 1#
o
4$G4H N an/ 1#
o
""G3" N an/ longitu/inal #
o
""G2H  an/ #
o
"$G2H ' a triutar, of the hite &olta locate/ in the er ast Region of +hana etween Narongo an/ )olgatanga (assena Nan7ana 0istrict! with its uer reach in )ur7ina <aso as shown in <igure 1. he su- asin is locate/ in one of the areas with the highest groun/water use er 7 in the &olta Rier asin (@artin 2##6!. he su-asin coers an area of aout 2H" 7
2
 of the hite &olta asin.
 
Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.4' No.1"' 2#14
2 <igure 1. @a of the tan7wi/i su-asin
2.2 Climate and Vegetation
he stu/, area falls within the Su/an-Saanna cliate ;one' which is characterise/ , high teeratures an/ a uni-o/al rainfall /istriution with a /istinct rain, season lasting aro?iatel, fro @a, to Seteer. he ean annual rainfall in Narongo is aro?iatel, $8#. he satio-teoral /istriutions of reciitation an/ eaoration hae a large iact on the water regie inclu/ing the groun/water ariailit,. In the rain, season /ail, rainfall a, e?cee/ "# ' this falls in less than one hour. @onthl, rainfall onl, e?cee/s otential eaoration in the three wettest onths' Jul,' ugust an/ Seteer. he total otential eaoration is 2#"# ' which is twice the annual rainfall. he aerage annual teerature is 2$
o
5. he ean /ail, iniu teerature is 2"
o
5' coinci/ing with the ea7 of the rain, season' an/ rises to a a?iu of 34
o
5 in ril. Relatie hui/it, is highest /uring the rain, season with 6" E. It /ros >uic7l, after the en/ of the rain, season in %ctoer' reaching a low of less than 1# E /uring the harattan erio/ in 0eceer an/ Januar, (@artin' 2##6!.
2.3 Land Use
%en tree-saanna fors the natural egetation in the er ast Region. rees show a large sacing an/ the area is largel, coere/ with grass an/ shrus. he ost coon econoic trees are the sheanut' /awa/awa'  oaa an/ acacia. 5oon grasses inclu/e
 Andropogen gayyanus
 in the less ero/e/ areas an/
 Hyperrhenia  spp
.'
 Aristida spp
. an/
 Heteropogen spp.
 in the seerel, ero/e/ areas. @ost of the area is use/ for sall-scale agriculture. 0uring the rain, season' alost H# E of the area is coere/ with sall lots of rainfe/ agriculture (@artin' 2##6!. %ther arts of the area are use/ for liestoc7 gra;ing an/ /rin7ing. In the /r, season' the aount of agriculture is sustantiall, lower' aro?iatel, 1 E of the area (nofficial reort' +&P' 2##H!. he other  arts of agricultural lan/ reain as are soil until the ne?t rain, season starts. Dan/ not use/ for agriculture is either sarse egetation on shallow soils in ston, areas or lan/ use/ for the gra;ing of liestoc7' which is coere/ , grass' shrus an/ trees.
2.4 Relief and Drainage
he relief of the su-asin is generall, flat' gentl, un/ulating with sloes ranging fro 1E to "E e?cet in a few ulan/s where sloes are aout 1#E. ccor/ing to /u (1$6$!' the relief of the R is relate/ to the geolog,' where a range of )iriian greenstone hills rising u to 4"H aoe sea leel /oinate north of )aw7u an/ eilla along the or/er with )ur7ina <aso an/ in the southwest along the hite &olta Rier (&R!. he granite areas are generall, of low' gentl, rolling relief ranging fro 122  to 26#  aoe sea leel. he relief
 
Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.4' No.1"' 2#14
3 un/er &oltain roc7s has siilar characteristics to granites' with few escarents rising aoe "18  near the  or/er with ogo in the east. he ean eleation for the area is 1$H  aoe sea leel (Diee' 2##2!.
2.5 Geological setting
hree forations of the )iriian /oain can e /istinguishe/ in the stu/, area (<igure 2! fro the geological a 1912"'###' sheets Narongo (&an /en )erg
et al.,
 1$63! an/ uarungo (@urra, an/ @itchell' 1$6#!. hese are9 )iriian etase/ientsK +ranitoi/s (grano/iorites' granite an/ gneiss! associate/ with the )iriianK Intrusie )ongo granite. Paleorotero;oic granitoi/s consisting of hornlen/e - iotite grano/iorite' iotite granite an/ iotite gneiss a7e u the largest art of the stu/, area an/ for the slightl, un/ulating south-western art of the tan7wi/i su-asin. )iriian etase/ients a/e u of h,llite' schist an/ >uart;ite are foun/ in sall atches aong the granitoi/s.
 
<igure 2. +eological an/ /rainage a of the stu/, area.
%# &aterials and &ethods
+roun/water sales were collecte/ fro 4# wells in @arch 2##$ for aFor an/ inor ions anal,ses. Saling  rotocols accor/ing to oo/ (1$81!' 5laasen (1$82!' an/ )arcelona
et al 
 (1$8"! were followe/. he a of groun/water saling oints is shown in <igure 3. ater sales accor/ing to stan/ar/s were collecte/ after  uing the well for aout " inutes in or/er to urge the well of stagnant water. he urging was /one to staili;e/ teerature' = an/ electrical con/uctiit, rea/ings.<or etal anal,sis' sales were filtere/ through #.4"L filters an/ resere/ with "l 6 N =N%
3
 in laorator, treate/ 1##l high /ensit, linear ol,eth,lene  ottles. =oweer' sales for anion anal,ses were without reseration. he niersal 5on/uctiit, @eter @ultiline P4 set that ha/ an in-uilt teerature coensation roe was use/ to easure electrical con/uctiit, an/ teerature siultaneousl,. <or the /eterination of total al7alinit, (as =5%
3-
!' fiel/ titration with 1.6 N =
2
S%
4
 to = M4." using =5= 0igital @ulti Saler @o/el 16$# was /one.

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