Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.4' No.1"' 2#14
Assessment of the Quality of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation in the Atankwidi Sub-Basin of the White Volta Basin, Ghana
' +eohre, . nornu
an/ )enon, ola ortatsi
0eartent of griusiness' &alle, &iew niersit,' echian 5aus 2.
0eartent of 5iil ngineering' wae N7ruah niersit, of Science an/ echnolog,' uasi 3.
5SIR- ater Research Institute' ccra *ail of the correson/ing author9 sauel.arnie:u.e/u.gh
he otential use of shallow groun/water for sall-scale /r, season irrigation is a 7e, issue for irrigation /eeloent in the ari/ ;one of +hana. <arers within the tan7wi/i su-asin of the hite &olta )asin are increasingl, a/oting groun/water as a source of irrigation water /ue to the unaailailit, of surface water /uring the /r, season. =oweer the >ualit, of the groun/water an/ its suitailit, for irrigation is not 7nown' hence the nee/ to assess the >ualit, an/ its suitailit, in or/er to ensure sustainailit, in the alication an/ ossile e?ansion of groun/water irrigation in the area. wo ain water t,es (5a-@g-=5%
! hae een /eterine/ using the Pier /iagra. he relatie aun/ance of cations in the groun/water was foun/ to e in the /ecreasing or/er of Na
. Siilarl,' that of anions was foun/ to hae a /ecreasing or/er of =5%
. +roun/water in the area ha/ low SR an/ low to e/iu salinit, ha;ar/. =oweer' agnesiu ha;ar/ an/ al7alinit, roles are li7el, to liit its use for irrigation.
Shallow +roun/water' =,/rocheical facies' Irrigation ater Cualit,.
+loall, there is a strong ositie relationshi etween higher /ensit, of irrigation an/ lower oert, rates' as Diton
(2##3! in/icates. In frica' onl, 3E of crolan/ is irrigate/ an/ the region has e?erience/ er, little re/uction in oert, in the 1$$#s (orl/ )an7' 2###!. In contrast' those regions that hae the greatest roortion of cultiate/ area irrigate/ (nael, ast sia' Pacific' North frica an/ @i//le ast! hae e?erience/ the greatest oert, re/uction. hat of +hana is ut at #.#2 E as at the en/ of 2##8. Irrigation of soe of these arale lan/s coul/ not aterialise /ue to the roFecte/ caital inoleent in channeling surface water oer long /istances to the irrigale lan/s. he use of han/-/ug wells enales the utili;ation of shallow groun/water for irrigate/ ro/uction of egetales an/ cash cros /uring the /r, season an/' therefore' roi/es an alternatie source of incoe for farers an/ oor househol/s. <or instance' the large scale ro/uction of shallot an/ other egetales using shallow groun/water in the eta Stri has roi/e/ enorous incoe to the in/igenous inhaitants (ortatsi an/ g,e7u' 2###!. In ost cases' Shallow +roun/water Irrigation (S+I! has /eeloe/ without an, goernent or /onor inoleent. <arers in the hite &olta )asin an/ the tan7wi/i su-asin to e secific where this stu/, focuses heail, rel, on shallow groun/water as a source of irrigation water /ue to the unaailailit, of surface water in the /r, season. s this is farer /rien' little is 7nown aout the >ualit, of water use/ for the ro/uction of egetales which crucial so far as faring is concern. his is ecause' esi/es affecting cro ,iel/ an/ soil h,sical con/itions' irrigation water >ualit, can affect fertilit, nee/s' irrigation s,ste erforance an/ how the water can e alie/. herefore' 7nowle/ge of irrigation water >ualit, is critical to un/erstan/ing what anageent changes are necessar, for long-ter ro/uctiit,. oe all' water >ualit, anal,sis in general' an/ not liite/ to irrigation water' is one of the ost iortant issues in groun/water stu/ies. It reeals the suitailit, of the water for /ifferent uroses an/ also hels to un/erstan/ the ossile change in >ualit, roal, /ue to roc7-water interaction or anthroogenic effects. he ain oFectie of this aer is therefore to assess the shallow groun/water >ualit, for irrigation in the stu/, area which will infor oth olic, an/ /ecision a7ers so far as S+I in the area is concern.
$# Study Area
2.1 Location and Size
he tan7wi/i su-asin is locate/ etween latitu/es 1#
4$G4H N an/ 1#
""G3" N an/ longitu/inal #
""G2H an/ #
"$G2H ' a triutar, of the hite &olta locate/ in the er ast Region of +hana etween Narongo an/ )olgatanga (assena Nan7ana 0istrict! with its uer reach in )ur7ina <aso as shown in <igure 1. he su- asin is locate/ in one of the areas with the highest groun/water use er 7 in the &olta Rier asin (@artin 2##6!. he su-asin coers an area of aout 2H" 7
of the hite &olta asin.