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Assessment of Trace Metals in Imported Cosmetics Marketed in Nigeria

Assessment of Trace Metals in Imported Cosmetics Marketed in Nigeria

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Published by Alexander Decker
The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). Science, Technology and Medicine Journals Call for Academic Manuscripts
The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). Science, Technology and Medicine Journals Call for Academic Manuscripts

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Published by: Alexander Decker on Aug 11, 2014
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Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.4' No.14' 2#14
11
Assessment of Trace Metals in Imported Cosmetics marketed in Nigeria
e)ella *. *.' +ago,a . +.' /awal 0.' *aue  an %o %. J 5eart,ent of he,ical Sciences' 7eeral 0niersit 9uari' Nigeria /awal:fuwuari.eu.ng
Abstract
;his wor is ai,e at inestigating the leels of so,e trace ,etals in ,ae-u ite,s ,ainl i,orte into  Nigeria. ;en ifferent ,ae-u ite,s were anal<e for seen trace ,etals. to,ic asortion Sectrohoto,eter (S! was use to =uantif the resence of these hea ,etals. ;he trace ,etals anal<e inclue >n' r' o' ' +n' P)' an Ni. ;he concentration of >n (#.6866 ,g?@g! was foun to )e the highest in sa,le I followe ) +n with (#. "48" ,g?@g! while r in sa,le  an 7' an  in sa,le  where )elow etecta)le li,it. ;hese hea ,etals were foun to )e within safe li,its of Aealth anaa' ;he Jaanese Stanars of os,etic Ingreients (JSI!' 75 an ;he Buroean os,etics 5irectie for health cos,etics free of trace ,etals toCicit.
Keywords:
;race ,etals' I,orte' Nigeria' S' li,it' an 75.
1.0 INT!"#CTI!N
os,etic roucts Inclue sin crea,s' lotions' erfu,es' listics' fingernail olishes' ee an facial ,ae-u  rearations' sha,oos' er,anent waes' hair colours' toothastes' eoorants an an ,aterial intene for use as a co,onent of a cos,etic rouct D1E or an of the seeral rearations (eCcluing soa! alie to the hu,an )o for )eautifing' resering' or altering the aearance or for cleansing' colouring' conitioning' or  rotecting the sin' hair' nails' lis' ees' or teethD2E. Au,ans hae use cos,etics for thousans of ears. lthough )eaut consciousness of eole has set the e,an of cos,etics in ,aret an as the issue of hea ,etals as eli)erate cos,etic ingreients has )een aresse' attention of clinicians an researchers turn to the  resence of these su)stances as i,urities an their toCic effectsD3E. In recent ears there has )een growing consu,er concern that cos,etics ,a contain har,ful leels of toCic su)stances. 7or eCa,le' in 2##F the a,aign for Safe os,etics u)lishe a reort rawing attention to the lea content in listics an li glosses an in 2##$ an 2#11 the 7oo an 5rug ,inistration (75! u)lishe its own finings on lea in listics D4' "E. ;he concern a)out the hsiological an )ehaioral effects of trace ,etals in hu,an oulation is er well nown. ;he toCicit of P) at high leels of eCosure is e=uall well nown' )ut a ,aor concern of toa is the ossi)ilit that continual eCosure to relatiel low leels of lea ,a also entail aerse health effects D6' F' an 8E. /ea an ca,iu, are two otentiall har,ful ,etals that hae arouse consiera)le concern. In fact' lea has )een escri)e as the ,ost seere eniron,ental conta,inant to arise in hu,an ciili<ation D" an $E. /ea is consiere the ,ost angerous ue to the eCtent that it is istri)ute in the ,ae-u ite,s as a olluting ele,ent. /ea i,airs the renal' ho,ooietic an nerous sste, an reorts of arious sures suggest that P) is causall relate to eficienc in cognitie functioning D1#' 11' an 12E. ccoring to Aealth anaa' 1##G of all cos,etics rouct teste ositie for nicel an oer $#G teste  ositie for )oth lea an )erlliu, an on the aerage containe at least 4 of the 8 ,etals of concern (arsenic' ca,iu,' lea' ,ercur' )erlliu,' nicel' seleniu,' an thalliu,! D13 an 14E. ;he co,lications of these  roucts can )e serious. So,e stuies hae ocu,ente an association )etween so,e ingreients of cos,etics an arious health ro)le,s D13E. 9o,en are at greater health ris in eeloing countries ue to inae=uate nutrition' unhealth lifestle' an eniron,ental eterioration D14E. Phsiological changes also can alter the  )ioaccu,ulation attern of these ,etals in fe,ale )o. +ost of the ,etals act as enocrine isruters interfering with the fe,ale hor,onal sste, D16E. Aea ,etals lie lea an ca,iu, are co,,on conta,inant in arious cos,etic roucts. Aoweer' other ,etals of ri,ar toCicological concern in cos,etics areH arsenic' ,ercur an anti,on D1F' 18E. /ea an ca,iu, are two otentiall har,ful ,etals that hae arouse consiera)le concern. In fact' lea has )een escri)e as the ,ost seere eniron,ental conta,inant to arise in hu,an ciili<ation D1$E. /ea oisoning has  )een a recogni<e health ha<ar for ,ore than 2'### ears. haracteristic features of lea toCicit' incluing ane,ia' colic' neuroath' nehroath' sterilit an co,a. BCosure to low-leels of lea has also )een associate with )ehaioral a)nor,alities' learning i,air,ent' ecrease hearing' an i,aire cognitie functions in hu,ans an in eCeri,ental ani,als D2#' 21E. Research has esta)lishe that lea can cross the  lacenta uring regnanc an has )eing associate with intra uterine fetal eath' re,ature elier an low  )irth weight D22E. /ea oisoning' eseciall a,ong chilren can lea to a,ages of the central nerous sste,' causing ,ental i,air,ent' affecting oCgen transort in the )o an causing igestie ro)le,s' long ter, eCosure to lea
 
Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.4' No.14' 2#14
12 can cause co,a' or eath D23E. /ea is a oisonous ,etal that can a,age nerous connections eseciall in oung chilren an cause )loo an )rain isorers. D23E. BCosure to high ca,iu, leels ,a result in a isease nown as osteoorosis D24E. a,iu, target )loo essel an heart tissue as well as the ines' lungs' an )rain' an results in heart isease' hertension' lier a,age' an suresse i,,une sste,. a,iu, also causes )one egraation )ecause it affects calciu, ,eta)olis, D2"E. Ingestion of nicel ,a cause herglane,ia' eression of the central nerous sste, an ine a,age D26E. Nicel ,etal is fre=uentl resonsi)le for allergic sin reactions an has )een reorte to )e one of the ,ost co,,on causes of allergic contact er,atitis (5! as reflecte ) ositie er,al atch tests. Nicel er,atitis rouces erthe,a' ec<e,a an lichenification of the hans an other areas of the sin D2FE. ;he increasing ail use of arious cos,etics roucts for )eautification an treat,ent ,ae it necessar for stuies into the trace ,etal content of these i,orte cos,etic roucts. ;his stu trie to esta)lish the eCistence an leels of trace ,etals in arious i,orte cos,etic roucts aaila)le locall.
$.0 MAT%IA&' AN" M%T(!"'
;en Sa,les of ifferent i,orte ,ae-u (cos,etics! ite,s were urchase rano,l fro, the Sa)on-*ari +aret in >aria' North western Nigeria for analsis' all of which were within shelf life. ;hese sa,les are registere an consiere wholeso,e. ;he are as gien )elow in ta)le 1. ;he sa,les were coe for eas ientification. Sa,les were air rie to constant weight then 1g of each sa,le was igeste using stanar ,ethos. to,ic a)sortion sectrohoto,eter ,oele  68## SAI5+>0 was use to anal<e the concentration of the trace ,etals >n' r' o' ' +g' P)' an Ni in the sa,les. roriate =ualit assurance  roceures an recaution were carrie out to ensure relia)ilit of the results. ;a)le 1. Sa,les with their oes S. No Sa,les oes 1 Be shaow 2 /i?Be liner Pencil 3 7ounation 4 Be /iner /i=ui 5 " Be /iner B 6 /i Stic 7 F @ohl (to<ali! * 8 /i gloss A $ 9hite ower I 1# Re ower J
).0 %'#&T'
;a)le 2. oncentration of trace ,etals in (,g?@g! S.No Sa,les >n r o  +n P) Ni 1 #.#2"4 #.##13 #.#3F4 # #.4464 #.1#23 #.##F$ 2 #.128# #.###" #.#2"$ #.###$ #."84" #.324# #.#148 3 #.#438 # #.#621 #.##1# #.13"8 #.#22F #.##82 4 5 #.#213 #.##"" #.#26" #.##36 #.#213 #.#8"3 #.##8# " B #.#388 #.##6# #.#38# #.##21 #.164$ #.#"6$ #.##64 6 7 #.#38F # #.#121 #.##21 #.#42F #.13#8 #.##$8 F * #.#4"4 #.#1#8 #.#133 #.##1F #.#483 #.113F #.#114 8 A #.#166 #.##1# #.#121 #.##32 #.#412 #.#F3$ #.##82 $ I #.6866 #.#131 #.#283 #.##21 #.3F"" #.#F$6 #.##66 1# J #.4"#F #.##18 #.#1F" #.##26 #."F3# #.113F #.#138
*.0 "I'C#''I!N'
;he istri)ution of trace ,etals in the cos,etics anal<e is shown in ;a)le 2. ;he results o)taine fro, this stu show ariations in the concentrations of hea ,etals in the sa,les of cos,etics anal<e. Ben though a high alue of >inc was o)taine eseciall in sa,le I' >inc ust lie Iron is not of toCicological significance D3#E. Iron co,ouns hae an esta)lishe role as colorants in ,an cos,etic roucts. Bience shows that in aition to its i,ortance as an essential nutrient necessar for oCgen ,eta)olis, an ,itochonrial function'
 
Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (&ol.4' No.14' 2#14
7e eChi)its a functional i,ortance D1#E. ;hus the o)sere high alueleel of >n (3".8G! was also reort D2$E. ;he leels recore for >n , anruff. 7igure 1. 5istri)ution of Ni' r'  s can seen fro, figure 1' hro,iu sa,les an5 which were ) internationall acceta)le ,aCi,u D3#E. Aoweer' eCosure oer long low concentration so,e ,etals coul an o! Ni an o was etecte in 7igure 2. 5istri)ution for +n' P)'  ;he concentration of P) range )et ga as roie ) the *er,an sa ,aCi,u, li,it of 3 ,g?@g accor o,are to other si,ilar stuies enough to cause health ha<ars. In cos,etics roucts are within safe Aoweer' there is the fear that the stu shows the trace ,etals anal International stanar organisation  rouct hae on the )o after long
%+%%NC%'
D1E 75 os,etics Aan)oo D2E Bnccloeia ritannica' D3E 0,ar' +. . an ale)'  Nigeria.
 International Jour
00.0020.0040.0060.0080.010.0120.0140.016A B C D E00.10.20.30.40.50.6A B C D E
 %nline!
13 as a trace ,etal in the nor,al growth an functional s of >n ,etal ,a not inicate an resent ossi)le e in orna,ental lea which wo,en use to aorn the a )e ue to the fact that a reasona)le a,ount of <i ,etals , concentrations in each of the sa,les anal<e we low the etecta)le li,it of #.##1 ,g?@g. Since li,its for these ele,ents incluing o' +n' an  erios ,ight cause accu,ulation of the ele,ents i  initiate allergic reactions. ,ong the nown allerg ll the anal<e sa,les (1##G! an r was etecte i o ,etals. een #.##64-#.#148 ,g?@g in all sa,le. ;his reaso fe ,aCi,u, er,issi)le li,it of lea in cos,etics ing to Aealth anaa inicates the sa,les are s conucte' the =uantit of this trace ,etals was n *hana D3#E an Joran D31E stuies reeal trace , li,it of the arious stanar organi<ation )oies an e ,etal will accu,ulate oer long erio of usage <e to )e within safe li,its set for their resence i . Aoweer' ,ore research is neee to actuallas  erios of 0sage these cos,etics roucts. ' 2#1#. Retriee fro,H httH??www.,l,law.co,. A. (2#13! nalsis of +etals in So,e os,etic P
nal of Research in Cosmetic Science.
3(2!H 14-18
 
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,aturation of the sin health ha<ar.  high ir ee lashes in Nigeria c is neee to reent e all etecte eCcet in there are no aaila)le i in cos,etic roucts the )o an een at nic ,etals (u' r' Ni' n 8#G of the sa,les. a)l falls within safet D28E. a,iu, with a fe of an  toCicit. ot foun to significant tals resent in arious therefore safe for use. of these roucts. ;his cos,etics ) arious ertain the effect these oucts in 7;-)ua'

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