Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.4' No.14' 2#14
Assessment of Trace Metals in Imported Cosmetics marketed in Nigeria
e)ella *. *.' +ago,a . +.' /awal 0.' *aue an %o %. J 5eart,ent of he,ical Sciences' 7eeral 0niersit 9uari' Nigeria /awal:fuwuari.eu.ng
;his wor is ai,e at inestigating the leels of so,e trace ,etals in ,ae-u ite,s ,ainl i,orte into Nigeria. ;en ifferent ,ae-u ite,s were anal<e for seen trace ,etals. to,ic asortion Sectrohoto,eter (S! was use to =uantif the resence of these hea ,etals. ;he trace ,etals anal<e inclue >n' r' o' ' +n' P)' an Ni. ;he concentration of >n (#.6866 ,g?@g! was foun to )e the highest in sa,le I followe ) +n with (#. "48" ,g?@g! while r in sa,le an 7' an in sa,le where )elow etecta)le li,it. ;hese hea ,etals were foun to )e within safe li,its of Aealth anaa' ;he Jaanese Stanars of os,etic Ingreients (JSI!' 75 an ;he Buroean os,etics 5irectie for health cos,etics free of trace ,etals toCicit.
;race ,etals' I,orte' Nigeria' S' li,it' an 75.
os,etic roucts Inclue sin crea,s' lotions' erfu,es' listics' fingernail olishes' ee an facial ,ae-u rearations' sha,oos' er,anent waes' hair colours' toothastes' eoorants an an ,aterial intene for use as a co,onent of a cos,etic rouct D1E or an of the seeral rearations (eCcluing soa! alie to the hu,an )o for )eautifing' resering' or altering the aearance or for cleansing' colouring' conitioning' or rotecting the sin' hair' nails' lis' ees' or teethD2E. Au,ans hae use cos,etics for thousans of ears. lthough )eaut consciousness of eole has set the e,an of cos,etics in ,aret an as the issue of hea ,etals as eli)erate cos,etic ingreients has )een aresse' attention of clinicians an researchers turn to the resence of these su)stances as i,urities an their toCic effectsD3E. In recent ears there has )een growing consu,er concern that cos,etics ,a contain har,ful leels of toCic su)stances. 7or eCa,le' in 2##F the a,aign for Safe os,etics u)lishe a reort rawing attention to the lea content in listics an li glosses an in 2##$ an 2#11 the 7oo an 5rug ,inistration (75! u)lishe its own finings on lea in listics D4' "E. ;he concern a)out the hsiological an )ehaioral effects of trace ,etals in hu,an oulation is er well nown. ;he toCicit of P) at high leels of eCosure is e=uall well nown' )ut a ,aor concern of toa is the ossi)ilit that continual eCosure to relatiel low leels of lea ,a also entail aerse health effects D6' F' an 8E. /ea an ca,iu, are two otentiall har,ful ,etals that hae arouse consiera)le concern. In fact' lea has )een escri)e as the ,ost seere eniron,ental conta,inant to arise in hu,an ciili<ation D" an $E. /ea is consiere the ,ost angerous ue to the eCtent that it is istri)ute in the ,ae-u ite,s as a olluting ele,ent. /ea i,airs the renal' ho,ooietic an nerous sste, an reorts of arious sures suggest that P) is causall relate to eficienc in cognitie functioning D1#' 11' an 12E. ccoring to Aealth anaa' 1##G of all cos,etics rouct teste ositie for nicel an oer $#G teste ositie for )oth lea an )erlliu, an on the aerage containe at least 4 of the 8 ,etals of concern (arsenic' ca,iu,' lea' ,ercur' )erlliu,' nicel' seleniu,' an thalliu,! D13 an 14E. ;he co,lications of these roucts can )e serious. So,e stuies hae ocu,ente an association )etween so,e ingreients of cos,etics an arious health ro)le,s D13E. 9o,en are at greater health ris in eeloing countries ue to inae=uate nutrition' unhealth lifestle' an eniron,ental eterioration D14E. Phsiological changes also can alter the )ioaccu,ulation attern of these ,etals in fe,ale )o. +ost of the ,etals act as enocrine isruters interfering with the fe,ale hor,onal sste, D16E. Aea ,etals lie lea an ca,iu, are co,,on conta,inant in arious cos,etic roucts. Aoweer' other ,etals of ri,ar toCicological concern in cos,etics areH arsenic' ,ercur an anti,on D1F' 18E. /ea an ca,iu, are two otentiall har,ful ,etals that hae arouse consiera)le concern. In fact' lea has )een escri)e as the ,ost seere eniron,ental conta,inant to arise in hu,an ciili<ation D1$E. /ea oisoning has )een a recogni<e health ha<ar for ,ore than 2'### ears. haracteristic features of lea toCicit' incluing ane,ia' colic' neuroath' nehroath' sterilit an co,a. BCosure to low-leels of lea has also )een associate with )ehaioral a)nor,alities' learning i,air,ent' ecrease hearing' an i,aire cognitie functions in hu,ans an in eCeri,ental ani,als D2#' 21E. Research has esta)lishe that lea can cross the lacenta uring regnanc an has )eing associate with intra uterine fetal eath' re,ature elier an low )irth weight D22E. /ea oisoning' eseciall a,ong chilren can lea to a,ages of the central nerous sste,' causing ,ental i,air,ent' affecting oCgen transort in the )o an causing igestie ro)le,s' long ter, eCosure to lea