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English Comprehension (ENG101) by VU

English Comprehension (ENG101) by VU

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Published by Ehsan Elahi
This word document contains handouts of 1st 16 Lessons of ENG101.
Next Lessons in word format will be published soon.
This word document contains handouts of 1st 16 Lessons of ENG101.
Next Lessons in word format will be published soon.

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Published by: Ehsan Elahi on Dec 04, 2009
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07/30/2013

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ENGLISH COMPREHENSION(ENG101)
LECTURE NOTES
As Delivered by
Dr. Surriya Shaffi Mir
On VU Television NetworkLecture No. 1: Reading and Dictionary
 
Today’s lesson is in two parts. In the
1st part 
you will learn about the• uses of a language dictionary• how to use a dictionaryIn the second part of the lesson you will listen to interesting story (ies).A dictionary is a book that not only lists and records the words of a language but it also tells youhow speakers of the language
 spell, pronounce, define, explain
and
use
the words of their language.
Reference Book -
provides useful information. Valuable only if you learn how to use it correctlyand efficiently. The following is a list of things that can be learned from a dictionary.(i) Spelling (ii) Pronunciation (iii) Part of speech(iv) Origin of word (v) Meaning/explanation (vi) Usage/Restrictive lables(vii) Synonyms & Antonyms (viii) Foreign words & Phrases (ix) General information.
(i) Spellings:
Many students find English spellings very confusing. So what do you do? Consult your dictionary.It will clarify your confusion by showing you the different spellings of the word.Look at the words
catalogue
and
theatre
. You must have noticed that the dictionary lists both BR E and AE/US spelling of the words. Both are correct.
 Exercise (i) Spelling 
Use the dictionary to answer the following questions about spelling.a) What other possible spellings does your dictionary give for these words?
Theatre Catalogue
 b) Does your dictionary say anything about the spelling ‘theatre’ and ‘catalogue’.c) How is the past tense of the following verbs spelling?If there are two possibilities, write both.
Theatre Catalogue
(ii) Pronunciation:
Students have problems pronouncing English words. A dictionary will help you learn the pronunciation of any word but only if you are familiar with the symbols in which they are written.We will discuss this in greater detail in the next lesson.All language dictionaries carry a pronunciation key/table. Be sure to read it.
(iii) Part of speech:
All dicts indicate what part of speech a word belongs to - whether the word is commonly used as N, ProN, V (tran, intr), Adj, Adv, Conj, Art, or Prep.
iv) Origin of Words:
Some dicts. indicate the origin & dev. of a word before it became an English word.
(v) Meaning/ Explanation / Definition of words:
This is the most important information about a word is its meaning.Most words have many meanings or shades of meaning. Do not read just the first meaning listed of the word you are looking up. Go down the numbered list. Look for meaning that best suits thecontext in which the word is used.Also look up words above & below the word you are looking up. You will find that words areoften closely related. It will help to extend your recognition of the word in other forms & contexts.
Exercise (v-a): Meaning
 
Look up the words ‘fast’ and ‘set’. Write the total number of different meanings of each word.Include all the numbered and lettered meanings for each part of speech.
Exercise (v-b): Meaning/Explanation / Definition of words.
Use the dictionary to find the specific meanings of the word ‘play’ in each of the following.1. The boys like to play a on the hard court2. Amna will play the sitar in the concert.3. The play produced by the arts club was a success.4. It was a clever play that won the football game.5. The gardener played the hose on the flower beds.6. A ‘week without water can make one weak’ is a play on words
(vi) Usage/Restrictive Labels:
Br / Am; formal / informal, colloquial, dialectal, archaic, poetic, slang.This information is important in writing.A dictionary will tell you the usage of words and phrases, idioms / proverbs of the language. It willalso tell you about the limitations of the use of the word. Special labels are used to show this. If aword is no longer in current use it will be labelled archaic
(arch)
or obsolete (obs).Other labels will tell you of the
level
of usage: whether the word has literary flavour 
(poetic)
or isslang
(sl 
), formal
(fml 
) informal
(infml).
Exercise ( vi-a ):Usage Restrictive LabelsIdioms / Two-word Verbs / Phrasal Verbs / Noun Phrase
Look up the underlined words in the following sentences & write their meanings.1. Prof. Widdowson held forth for over an hour about the need for communication languageteaching.2. I don’t get how you found the answer.3. My roommate is pretty hard up these
Exercise (vi-b): Restrictive or Usage Labels
a) Look up the words / phrases; write whether its use is primarily slang, informal or colloquial.
Guys Cool 
Example:Will it be
O.K.
if I met you at the library about eight?Label:
Colloquial 
Meaning:
 All Right 
(vii) Synonyms and Antonyms:
Similar & opposite mgs of words. Frequently given but not in all dictionaries.
(viii) Foreign words and Phrases:
Dictionaries define / explain many common foreign words and phrases either with the main entriesor in a special section at the back.
Exercise (viii): Foreign Words & Phrases
Look up each of these foreign words of phrases. Write its English meaning. et cetera, e.g., et al., a prior, coup d’état, per se.
ix) General Information:
This section varies dictionary to dictionary. Names of important persons, places, countries,nationalities, are listed either in the alphabetical arrangement of words or in special sections at the back. Some dictionaries may include rules for spelling, punctuation, list of common first names inEnglish, systems of weights and measures, conversion tables, etc...
How to use a dictionary:

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