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Processing and Analysis of Methaphase and Chromosome Images Ekaterina Detcheva

Processing and Analysis of Methaphase and Chromosome Images Ekaterina Detcheva

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Published by: Cory Horn on Dec 04, 2009
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 Ekaterina Detcheva
 Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 8, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria E-mail: detcheva@math.acad.bg 
The paper describes the realization of procedures for processing andanalysis of metaphase and chromosome images. Image processing procedures include preprocessing and image segmentation. Analyzing procedures extract methaphase and chromosome features. Adescription of these procedures and corresponding data structures isgiven.
Chromosome analysis intelligent system (CAIS) is developed to perform chromosomeanalysis and classification. Methaphase and chromosome image processing and analysisare based on analyzing the gray-level images of biological objects on a microscope slide.The images are composed of biological objects nearly well spread and distinguishablefrom the background. Image processing methods include preprocessing and imagesegmentation. Analysis methods extract methaphase and chromosome features to form asymbolic image description. All these methods are applied on large data structures like pixel arrays. A high efficiency and a lower degree of flexibility are required to handlesuch large amounts of data. To be successfully realized these methods should beimplemented as appropriate efficient procedures. This problem requires special domain-oriented knowledge about image processing and chromosome classification. The present paper describes the realization of metaphase and chromosome image processing andanalysis procedures organized in classes of objects [1,2].
2.Image processing procedures
This section contains a short description of procedures for methaphase and chromosomeimage processing.
2.1Loading an image from a file
The system is working on 256-grey-level images in the following graphic file formats:
Windows Bitmaps (BMP), Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) and Raw Image Format(PIC). Images can be viewed in a 25%, 50%, 100%, 200% or 400% scale (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Methaphase image2.2Pre-processing
Methaphase image can be interactively edited if there are some touching chromosomes,artifacts etc.Methaphase smoothing is made using median filtering.
2.3Chromosome isolation
Object isolation is performed by a recursive procedure analyzing 3x3 window with acenter the current pixel with gray value greater then the threshold. The result of isolationis displayed on the screen. Each isolated object is drawn in a separate rectangle. Allobjects are sorted in decreasing order of their area (Figure 2).
2.4Chromosome editing
Some of isolated objects can be overlapped. They can be isolated interactively by theoperator (Figure 3).
2.5Chromosome centromere location
Initially LaPlassian filtering using 3x3 convolution on the current window with thekernel below performs object contour detection:0-10-14-10-10
Figure 2: Isolated chromosomesFigure 3: Object editingFigure 4: Centromere location
Then chromosome centromere is located using the “closest approach”[3]. The twoopposite contour points with longest distance are determined first. They define the left

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