currency, but had a lasting memory on the Russians. Their economy mostlyrested on a barter system due to this unbalance.-The languages in Russia slowly changed due to the Mongols as well. It shiftedfrom Slavic and Byzantine Greek to Russian.-Historians debate over the impact of the Mongols, as some point out that theydestroyed Russia’s economy and socially isolated them, while others say that theRussian’s did it to themselves.
B. New States in Eastern Europe and Anatolia
-In some areas of Europe, countries like Holland and Poland faced the Mongolattacks on their own, mostly because of feuding between the Pope and theEmperor. The Holy Roman Emperor at the time was not hostile towards theMuslims, but the Pope threatened to excommunicate him from the church if he didnot assist in the crusades against the Muslims. Their fighting created a distractionand so many of the European territories ended up getting overrun by the Mongols.-The Mongol army poised to take over Europe was not actually made up of allMongols. Other forces joined them, such as people from Chinese, Iranians, Turks,and even some Europeans!-Right as the Mongol army prepared to strike Europe, they were recalled to their homeland because of the death of their Khan, Ogodei. They left in 1241, however if they had not, they would have almost certainly destroyed Europe’s weakdefenses and overrun the feudal Europe in a matter of days. History may havebeen very different.-The Mongols built many cultural bridges between themselves and theEuropeans, and the Europeans walked away with a better understanding of math,science, literature, and new technologies.-During the 13
century, the Mongol presence led to more centralizedgovernments in places like Lithuania.-During Mongol rule, Islam was spread to Europe through Constantinople.
IV. Mongol Domination In ChinaA. The Yuan Empire
-The Mongol leader Khubilai Khan was known in China for believing in Chinesevalues and believing in Confusionist values. He named his oldest son a Chinesename and provided him with Confusionist teachers. When Khubilai Khan came toChina, it was splintered into three separate parts: The Tanggut, the Jin, and theSong. Not only did he unify these separate states, but he also set up aprosperous capital in Beijing.-While under their rule, the Chinese experienced Mongol innovations that includedtax farming, changes in the Chinese social rankings, and a secular law system.China also experienced an increase in wealth and trade as their ports and tradecities mushroomed. This increase was largely due to the increase in themerchants’ status in Chinese society. Rich, aristocratic families who relied ongovernment service to provide now started to shift into the field of commerce andmarketing. This increase in trade also led to a major increase in urbanization.-As a country, however, China was hurt by the Mongol rule. Their populationdropped by over 40 percent due to not only the Mongol princes but also becauseof warfare, natural disasters, and the plague. The leaders did not help very muchthough, neglecting irrigation dikes and dams, and evicting many of the farmersneeded to support the population. Also, the heavy taxation on not only the farmers