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Criminal-Law.pdf

Criminal-Law.pdf

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Published by Miyo Rigor
criminal law UST for first year students
criminal law UST for first year students

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Miyo Rigor on Aug 13, 2014
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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08/13/2014

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original

 
B
OOK
1:
 
F
UNDAMENTAL
P
RINCIPLES
 
1
A
CADEMICS
 
C
HAIR
:
 
L
ESTER
 
J
AY
 
A
LAN
 
E.
 
F
LORES
 
II
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIRS
 
F
OR
 
A
CADEMICS
:
 
K
AREN
 
J
OY
 
G.
 
S
ABUGO
 
&
 
J
OHN
 
H
ENRY
 
C.
 
M
ENDOZA
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIR
 
FOR
 
A
DMINISTRATION
 
AND
 
F
INANCE
:
 
J
EANELLE
 
C.
 
L
EE
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIRS
 
FOR
 
L
AYOUT
 
A
ND
 
D
ESIGN
:
 
E
ARL
 
L
OUIE
 
M.
 
M
ASACAYAN
 
&
 
T
HEENA
 
C.
 
M
ARTINEZ
 
U
 
N
 
I
 
V
 
E
 
R
 
S
 
I
 
T
 
Y
 
O
 
F
 
S
 
A
 
N
 
T
 
O
 
T
 
O
 
M
 
A
 
S
 
Facultad de Derecho ivil
 
BOOK
 
1
 
I.
 
FUNDAMENTAL
 
PRINCIPLES
 
A.
 
DEFINITION
 
OF
 
CRIMINAL
 
LAW
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
criminal
 
law?
 
A:
 
Criminal
 
law
 
is
 
that
 
branch
 
of 
 
law,
 
which
 
defines
 
crimes,
 
treats
 
of 
 
their
 
nature,
 
and
 
provides
 
for
 
their
 
punishment.
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
theories
 
in
 
criminal
 
law?
 
A:
 
1.
 
Classical 
 
theory 
 
 –
 
the
 
basis
 
of 
 
criminal
 
liability
 
is
 
human
 
free
 
will
 
and
 
the
 
purpose
 
of 
 
the
 
penalty
 
is
 
retribution.
 
It
 
is
 
endeavored
 
to
 
establish
 
a
 
mechanical
 
and
 
direct
 
proportion
 
between
 
crime
 
and
 
penalty,
 
and
 
there
 
is
 
scant
 
regard
 
to
 
the
 
human
 
element.
 
Note:
 
RPC
 
is
 
generally
 
governed
 
by
 
this
 
theory.
 
2.
 
Positivist 
 
theory 
 
 –
 
the
 
basis
 
of 
 
criminal
 
liability
 
is
 
the
 
sum
 
of 
 
the
 
social,
 
natural
 
and
 
economic
 
phenomena
 
to
 
which
 
the
 
actor
 
is
 
exposed.
 
The
 
purposes
 
of 
 
penalty
 
are
 
prevention
 
and
 
correction.
 
This
 
theory
 
is
 
exemplified
 
in
 
the
 
provisions
 
regarding
 
impossible
 
crimes
 
and
 
habitual
 
delinquency.
 
3.
 
Eclectic
 
or 
 
Mixed 
 
theory 
 
 –
 
It
 
is
 
a
 
combination
 
of 
 
positivist
 
and
 
classical
 
thinking
 
wherein
 
crimes
 
that
 
are
 
economic
 
and
 
social
 
in
 
nature
 
should
 
be
 
dealt
 
in
 
a
 
positive
 
manner,
 
thus,
 
the
 
law
 
is
 
more
 
compassionate.
 
Ideally,
 
the
 
classical
 
theory
 
is
 
applied
 
to
 
heinous
 
crimes,
 
whereas,
 
the
 
positivist
 
is
 
made
 
to
 
work
 
on
 
economic
 
and
 
social
 
crimes.
 
4.
 
Utilitarian
 
or 
 
Protective
 
theory 
the
 
primary
 
purpose
 
of 
 
the
 
punishment
 
under
 
criminal
 
law
 
is
 
the
 
protection
 
of 
 
society
 
from
 
actual
 
and
 
potential
 
wrongdoers.
 
The
 
courts,
 
therefore,
 
in
 
exacting
 
retribution
 
for
 
the
 
wronged
 
society,
 
should
 
direct
 
the
 
punishment
 
to
 
potential
 
or
 
actual
 
wrongdoers,
 
since
 
criminal
 
law
 
is
 
directed
 
against
 
acts
 
or
 
omissions
 
which
 
the
 
society
 
does
 
not
 
approve.
 
Consistent
 
with
 
this
 
theory
 
is
 
the
 
mala
 
 prohibita
 
principle
 
which
 
punishes
 
an
 
offense
 
regardless
 
of 
 
malice
 
or
 
criminal
 
intent.
 
Q:
 
How
 
are
 
penal
 
laws
 
construed?
 
A:
 
Liberally
 
construed
 
in
 
favor
 
of 
 
offender
 
and
 
strictly
 
against
 
the
 
state.
 
Note:
 
In
 
cases
 
of 
 
conflict
 
with
 
official
 
translation,
 
original
 
Spanish
 
text
 
is
 
controlling.
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
basic
 
maxims
 
in
 
criminal
 
law?
 
A:
 
1.
 
Nullum
 
crimen,
 
nulla
 
 poena
 
sine
 
lege
 
(There
 
is
 
no
 
crime
 
when
 
there
 
is
 
no
 
law
 
punishing
 
the
 
same)
 
 –
 
No
 
matter
 
how
 
wrongful,
 
evil
 
or
 
bad
 
the
 
act
 
is,
 
if 
 
there
 
is
 
no
 
law
 
defining
 
the
 
act,
 
the
 
same
 
is
 
not
 
considered
 
a
 
crime.
 
2.
 
 Actus
 
non
 
 facit 
 
reum,
 
nisi 
 
mens
 
sit 
 
rea
 
(The
 
act
 
cannot
 
be
 
criminal
 
where
 
the
 
mind
 
is
 
not
 
criminal)
 
 –
 
This
 
is
 
true
 
to
 
a
 
felony
 
characterized
 
by
 
dolo
,
 
but
 
not
 
a
 
felony
 
resulting
 
from
 
culpa
.
 
This
 
maxim
 
is
 
not
 
an
 
absolute
 
one
 
because
 
it
 
is
 
not
 
applied
 
to
 
culpable
 
felonies,
 
or
 
those
 
that
 
result
 
from
 
negligence.
 
3.
 
Doctrine
 
of 
 
Pro
 
Reo
 
– 
 
Whenever
 
a
 
penal
 
law
 
is
 
to
 
be
 
construed
 
or
 
applied
 
and
 
the
 
law
 
admits
 
of 
 
two
 
interpretations,
 
one
 
lenient
 
to
 
the
 
offender
 
and
 
one
 
strict
 
to
 
the
 
offender,
 
that
 
interpretation
 
which
 
is
 
lenient
 
or
 
favorable
 
to
 
the
 
offender
 
will
 
be
 
adopted.
 
4.
 
 Actus
 
me
 
invito
 
 factus
 
non
 
est 
 
meus
 
actus
 
(An
 
act
 
done
 
by
 
me
 
against
 
my
 
will
 
is
 
not
 
my
 
act)
 
 –
 
Whenever
 
a
 
person
 
is
 
under
 
a
 
compulsion
 
of 
 
irresistible
 
force
 
or
 
uncontrollable
 
fear
 
to
 
do
 
an
 
act
 
against
 
his
 
will,
 
in
 
which
 
that
 
act
 
produces
 
a
 
crime
 
or
 
offense,
 
such
 
person
 
is
 
exempted
 
in
 
any
 
criminal
 
liability
 
arising
 
from
 
the
 
said
 
act.
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
the
 
definition
 
of 
 
a
 
crime?
 
A:
 
A
 
crime
 
is
 
the
 
generic
 
term
 
used
 
to
 
refer
 
to
 
a
 
wrongdoing
 
punished
 
either
 
under
 
the
 
RPC
 
or
 
under
 
the
 
special
 
law.
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
various
 
classifications
 
of 
 
crimes?
 
A:
 
1.
 
 As
 
to
 
the
 
commission
 
a.
 
Dolo
 
or
 
felonies
 
committed
 
with
 
deliberate
 
intent
 
b.
 
Culpa
 
or
 
those
 
committed
 
by
 
means
 
of 
 
fault
 
 
UST
 
G
OLDEN
N
OTES
2011
2.
 
 As
 
to
 
the
 
stage
 
of 
 
execution
 
a.
 
Attempted
 
b.
 
Frustrated
 
c.
 
Consummated
 
3.
 
 As
 
to
 
gravity 
 
a.
 
Grave
 
felonies
 
b.
 
Less
 
grave
 
felonies
 
c.
 
Light
 
felonies
 
4.
 
 As
 
to
 
count 
 
a.
 
Composite
 
or
 
special
 
complex
 
b.
 
Complex,
 
under
 
Art.
 
48
 
c.
 
Continuing
 
5.
 
Classification
 
of 
 
 felonies
 
as
 
to
 
a.
 
Formal
 
felonies
 
 –
 
those
 
which
 
are
 
always
 
consummated.
 
(
e.g.
 
physical
 
injuries)
 
b.
 
Material
 
felonies
 
 –
 
those
 
which
 
have
 
various
 
stages
 
of 
 
execution.
 
c.
 
Those
 
which
 
do
 
not
 
admit
 
of 
 
the
 
frustrated
 
stage.
 
(
e.g.
 
rape
 
and
 
theft)
 
6.
 
 As
 
to
 
nature
 
2
C
RIMINAL
 
L
AW
 
T
EAM
:
 
A
DVISER
:
 
J
UDGE
 
R
ICO
 
S
EBASTIAN
 
D.
 
L
IWANAG
;
 
S
UBJECT
 
H
EAD
:
 
Z
ANDY
 
A.
 
Z
ACATE
;
 
A
SST
.
 
S
UBJECT
 
H
EADS
:
 
A
NNA
 
F
E
 
A
BAD
 
&
 
P
AUL
 
R
OMEO
 
P
OLLOSO
;
 
M
EMBERS
:
 
S
HARMAGNE
 
J
OY
 
B
INAY
,
 
M
ARIA
 
C
ARMELLA
 
B
USTONERA
,
 
M
ARY
 
G
RACE
 
C
AMAYO
,
 
D
ELFIN
 
F
ABRIGAS
,
 
J
R
.,
 
S
PINEL
 
A
LBERT
 
D
ECLARO
,
 
E
RIK
 
G
ALLARDO
,
 
K
ING
 
J
AMES
 
C
ARLO
 
H
IZON
,
 
C
ARMINA
 
M
AE
 
M
ANALO
,
 
F
AYE
 
A
NGELA
 
P
ASCUA
,
 
A
NTHONY
 
R
OBLES
,
 
R
AISSA
 
S
AIPUDIN
,
 
A
DRIAN
 
V
ALBUENA
 
a.
 
Mala
 
in
 
se
 
b.
 
Mala
 
 prohibita
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
the
 
difference
 
between
 
crimes
 
mala
 
in
 
se
 
and
 
crimes
 
mala
 
 prohibita? 
 
A:
 
Mala
 
in
 
se
 
Mala
 
 prohibita
 
Acts
 
or
 
omissions
 
which
 
are
 
inherently
 
evil.
 
Acts
 
which
 
are
 
made
 
evil
 
because
 
there
 
is
 
a
 
law
 
prohibiting
 
it.
 
Punished
 
under
 
the
 
RPC
 
Violations
 
of 
 
special
 
laws
 
Note:
 
Not
 
all
 
violations
 
of 
 
special
 
laws
 
are
 
mala
 
 prohibita.
 
Even
 
if 
 
the
 
crime
 
is
 
punished
 
under
 
a
 
special
 
law,
 
if 
 
the
 
act
 
punished
 
is
 
one
 
which
 
is
 
inherently
 
wrong,
 
the
 
same
 
is
 
malum
 
in
 
se
,
 
and,
 
therefore,
 
good
 
faith
 
and
 
the
 
lack
 
of 
 
criminal
 
intent
 
is
 
a
 
valid
 
defense;
 
unless
 
it
 
is
 
the
 
product
 
of 
 
criminal
 
negligence
 
or
 
culpa.
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
violations
 
of 
 
special
 
laws
 
which
 
are
 
considered
 
mala
 
in
 
se
?
 
A:
 
1.
 
Piracy
 
in
 
Philippine
 
waters
 
2.
 
Brigandage
 
in
 
the
 
highways
 
(both
 
under
 
PD
 
532)
 
Note:
 
Likewise,
 
when
 
the
 
special
 
laws
 
require
 
that
 
the
 
punished
 
act
 
be
 
committed
 
knowingly
 
and
 
willfully,
 
criminal
 
intent
 
is
 
required
 
to
 
be
 
proved
 
before
 
criminal
 
liability
 
may
 
arise.
 
Q:
 
If 
 
a
 
special
 
law
 
uses
 
the
 
nomenclature
 
of 
 
penalties
 
in
 
the
 
RPC,
 
what
 
is
 
the
 
effect
 
on
 
the
 
nature
 
of 
 
the
 
crime
 
covered
 
by
 
the
 
special
 
law?
 
A:
 
Even
 
if 
 
a
 
special
 
law
 
uses
 
the
 
nomenclature
 
of 
 
penalties
 
under
 
the
 
RPC,
 
that
 
alone
 
will
 
not
 
make
 
the
 
act
 
or
 
omission
 
a
 
crime
 
mala
 
in
 
se
.
 
The
 
special
 
law
 
may
 
only
 
intend
 
the
 
Code
 
to
 
apply
 
as
 
a
 
supplementary.
 
(People
 
v.
 
Simon,
 
G.R.
 
No.
 
93028,
 
 July 
 
29,
 
1994)
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
distinctions
 
between
 
crimes
 
punished
 
under
 
the
 
RPC
 
and
 
crimes
 
punished
 
under
 
special
 
laws?
 
A:
 
CRIMES
 
UNDER
 
THE
 
RPC
 
CRIMES
 
UNDER
 
SPECIAL
 
LAW
 
Involve
 
crimes
 
mala
 
in
 
se.
 
Usually
 
crimes
 
mala
 
 prohibita
 
 As
 
to
 
moral 
 
trait 
 
of 
 
the
 
offender 
 
It
 
is
 
considered.
 
This
 
is
 
why
 
liability
 
would
 
only
 
arise
 
when
 
there
 
is
 
dolo
 
or
 
culpa
 
in
 
the
 
commission
 
of 
 
the
 
punishable
 
act
 
It
 
is
 
not
 
considered.
 
It
 
is
 
enough
 
that
 
the
 
prohibited
 
act
 
was
 
voluntary
 
done.
 
 As
 
to
 
use
 
of 
 
good 
 
 faith
 
as
 
defense
 
It
 
is
 
a
 
valid
 
defense unless
 
the
 
crime
 
is
 
the
 
result
 
of 
 
culpa.
 
It
 
is
 
not
 
a
 
defense.
 
 As
 
to
 
the
 
degree
 
of 
 
accomplishment 
 
of 
 
the
 
crime
 
May
 
admit
 
attempted
 
and/or
 
frustrated
 
stages
 
There
 
are
 
no
 
attempted
 
or
 
frustrated
 
stages,
 
unless
 
the
 
special
 
law
 
expressly
 
penalizes
 
the
 
mere
 
attempt
 
or
 
frustration
 
of 
 
the
 
crime
 
 As
 
to
 
mitigating
 
and 
 
aggravating
 
circumstances
 
Taken
 
into
 
account
 
in
 
imposing
 
the
 
penalty
 
since
 
the
 
moral
 
trait
 
of 
 
the
 
offender
 
is
 
considered
 
Not taken
 
into
 
account
 
in
 
imposing
 
the
 
penalty.
 
As
 
an
 
exception,
 
when
 
the
 
special
 
law
 
uses
 
the
 
 
B
OOK
1:
 
F
UNDAMENTAL
P
RINCIPLES
 
nomenclature
 
of 
 
the
 
penalties
 
under
 
the
 
RPC,
 
the
 
circumstances
 
can
 
be
 
considered.
 
 As
 
to
 
the
 
degree
 
of 
 
 participation of 
 
offender 
When
 
there
 
is
 
more
 
than
 
one
 
offender,
 
the
 
degree
 
of 
 
participation
 
of 
 
each
 
in
 
the
 
commission
 
of 
 
the
 
crime
 
is
 
taken
 
into
 
account
 
in
 
imposing
 
the
 
penalty;
 
thus,
 
offenders
 
are
 
classified
 
as
 
principal,
 
accomplice
 
and
 
accessory.
 
It
 
is
 
not
 
considered.
 
All
 
who
 
perpetrated
 
the
 
prohibited
 
act
 
are
 
penalized
 
to
 
the
 
same
 
extent.
 
There
 
is
 
no
 
principal,
 
accomplice
 
or
 
accessory
 
to
 
consider.
 
3
A
CADEMICS
 
C
HAIR
:
 
L
ESTER
 
J
AY
 
A
LAN
 
E.
 
F
LORES
 
II
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIRS
 
F
OR
 
A
CADEMICS
:
 
K
AREN
 
J
OY
 
G.
 
S
ABUGO
 
&
 
J
OHN
 
H
ENRY
 
C.
 
M
ENDOZA
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIR
 
FOR
 
A
DMINISTRATION
 
AND
 
F
INANCE
:
 
J
EANELLE
 
C.
 
L
EE
 
V
ICE
 
C
HAIRS
 
FOR
 
L
AYOUT
 
A
ND
 
D
ESIGN
:
 
E
ARL
 
L
OUIE
 
M.
 
M
ASACAYAN
 
&
 
T
HEENA
 
C.
 
M
ARTINEZ
 
U
 
N
 
I
 
V
 
E
 
R
 
S
 
I
 
T
 
Y
 
O
 
F
 
S
 
A
 
N
 
T
 
O
 
T
 
O
 
M
 
A
 
S
 
Facultad de Derecho ivil
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
the
 
legal
 
basis
 
for
 
punishment?
 
A:
 
The
 
power
 
to
 
punish
 
violators
 
of 
 
criminal
 
law
 
comes
 
within
 
the
 
 police
 
 power 
 
of 
 
the
 
state.
 
It
 
is
 
the
 
injury
 
inflicted
 
to
 
the
 
public
 
which
 
a
 
criminal
 
action
 
seeks
 
to
 
redress,
 
and
 
not
 
the
 
injury
 
to
 
the
 
individual.
 
B.
 
SCOPE
 
OF
 
APPLICATION
 
AND
 
CHARACTERISTICS
 
OF
 
THE
 
PHILIPPINE
 
CRIMINAL
 
LAW
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
two
 
scopes
 
of 
 
application
 
of 
 
the
 
RPC?
 
A:
 
1.
 
Intraterritorial 
 
– 
 
refers
 
to
 
the
 
application
 
of 
 
the
 
RPC
 
within
 
the
 
Philippine
 
territory
 
2.
 
Extraterritorial 
 
 –
 
refers
 
to
 
the
 
application
 
of 
 
the
 
RPC
 
outside
 
the
 
Philippine
 
territory.
 
Q:
 
In
 
what
 
cases
 
does
 
the
 
RPC
 
have
 
an
 
extraterritorial
 
application?
 
A:
 
Against
 
those
 
who:
 
1.
 
Should
 
commit
 
an
 
offense
 
while
 
on
 
a
 
Philippine
 
ship
 
or
 
airship
 
2.
 
Should
 
forge
 
or
 
counterfeit
 
any
 
coin
 
or
 
currency
 
note
 
of 
 
the
 
Philippine
 
Islands
 
or
 
obligations
 
and
 
securities
 
issued
 
by
 
the
 
Government
 
of 
 
the
 
Philippine
 
Islands
 
3.
 
Should
 
be
 
liable
 
for
 
acts
 
connected
 
with
 
the
 
introduction
 
into
 
these
 
islands
 
of 
 
the
 
obligations
 
and
 
securities
 
mentioned
 
in
 
the
 
preceding
 
number
 
4.
 
While
 
being
 
public
 
officers
 
or
 
employees,
 
should
 
commit
 
an
 
offense
 
in
 
the
 
exercise
 
of 
 
their
 
functions;
 
or
 
5.
 
Should
 
commit
 
any
 
of 
 
the
 
crimes
 
against
 
national
 
security
 
and
 
the
 
law
 
of 
 
nations.
 
(Art.
 
2,
 
RPC)
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
a
 
Philippine
 
ship?
 
A:
 
One
 
that
 
is
 
registered
 
in
 
accordance
 
with
 
Philippine
 
laws.
 
If 
 
the
 
vessel
 
is
 
in
 
the
 
high
 
seas,
 
it
 
is
 
considered
 
as
 
an
 
extension
 
of 
 
the
 
Philippine
 
territory
 
and
 
the
 
Philippines
 
still
 
has
 
 jurisdiction.
 
But
 
if 
 
the
 
vessel
 
is
 
within
 
the
 
territory
 
of 
 
another
 
country,
 
 jurisdiction
 
is
 
generally
 
with
 
the
 
foreign
 
State
 
because
 
penal
 
laws
 
are
 
primarily
 
territorial
 
in
 
application.
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
requirements
 
of 
 
“an
 
offense
 
committed
 
while
 
on
 
a
 
Philippine
 
ship
 
or
 
airship?”
 
A:
 
1.
 
The
 
ship
 
or
 
airship
 
must
 
be
 
registered
 
with
 
the
 
Philippine
 
Bureau
 
of 
 
Customs.
 
2.
 
The
 
ship
 
must
 
be
 
in
 
the
 
high
 
seas
 
or
 
the
 
airship
 
must
 
be
 
in
 
international
 
space.
 
Note:
 
Under
 
International
 
Law
 
rule,
 
a
 
vessel
 
which
 
is
 
not
 
registered
 
in
 
accordance
 
with
 
the
 
laws
 
of 
 
any
 
country
 
is
 
considered
 
a
 
 private
 
vessel 
 
and
 
piracy
 
is
 
a
 
crime
 
against
 
humanity
 
in
 
general,
 
such
 
that
 
wherever
 
pirates
 
may
 
go,
 
they
 
can
 
be
 
prosecuted.
 
Q:
 
What
 
are
 
the
 
two
 
recognized
 
rules
 
on
 
 jurisdiction
 
over
 
merchant
 
vessels?
 
A:
 
The
 
French
 
rule
 
and
 
the
 
English
 
rule.
 
These
 
rules
 
refer
 
to
 
the
 
 jurisdiction
 
of 
 
one
 
country
 
over
 
its
 
merchant
 
vessels
 
situated
 
in
 
another
 
country.
 
These
 
do
 
not
 
apply
 
to
 
war
 
vessels
 
over
 
which
 
a
 
country
 
always
 
has
 
 jurisdiction.
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
the
 
French
 
rule?
 
A:
 
The
 
French
 
rule
 
recognizes
 
the
 
 jurisdiction
 
of 
 
the
 
flag
 
country
 
over
 
crimes
 
committed
 
on
 
board
 
the
 
vessel
 
except 
 
if 
 
the
 
crime
 
disturbs
 
the
 
peace
 
and
 
order
 
and
 
security
 
of 
 
the
 
host
 
country.
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
the
 
English
 
rule?
 
A:
 
The
 
English
 
rule
 
recognizes
 
that
 
the
 
host
 
country
 
has
 
 jurisdiction
 
over
 
crimes
 
committed
 
on
 
board
 
the
 
vessel
 
unless
 
they
 
involve
 
the
 
internal
 
management
 
of 
 
the
 
vessel.
 
Note:
 
The
 
effect
 
on
 
 jurisdiction
 
of 
 
both
 
rules
 
is
 
almost
 
the
 
same
 
because
 
the
 
general
 
rule
 
of 
 
one
 
is
 
the
 
exception
 
of 
 
the
 
other.
 
Q:
 
What
 
is
 
the
 
rule
 
on
 
foreign
 
merchant
 
vessels
 
in
 
possession
 
of 
 
dangerous
 
drugs?
 

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