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Industrial Relationship

Industrial Relationship

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Published by anilnitin
industrial relationship
industrial relationship

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Published by: anilnitin on Dec 05, 2009
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06/06/2012

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Concept of Industrial Relations:
The term ‘Industrial Relations’ comprises of two terms: ‘Industry’ and ‘Relations’. “Industry” refers to “any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are) engaged”. By “relations” we mean “the relationships that existwithin the industry between the employer and his workmen.” The term industrial relations explains the relationship between employees andmanagement which stem directly or indirectly from union-employer relationship.Industrial relations are the relationships between employees and employers withinthe organizational settings. The field of industrial relations looks at the relationshipbetween management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by aunion. Industrial relations are basically the interactions between employers,employees and the government, and the institutions and associations through whichsuch interactions are mediated.The term industrial relations has a broad as well as a narrow outlook. Originally,industrial relations was broadly defined to include the relationships and interactionsbetween employers and employees. From this perspective, industrial relations coversall aspects of the employment relationship, including human resource management,employee relations, and union-management (or labor) relations. Now its meaninghas become more specific and restricted. Accordingly, industrial relations pertains tothe study and practice of collective bargaining, trade unionism, and labor-management relations, while human resource management is a separate, largelydistinct field that deals with nonunion employment relationships and the personnelpractices and policies of employers.The relationships which arise at and out of the workplace generally include therelationships between individual workers, the relationships between workers andtheir employer, the relationships between employers, the relationships employersand workers have with the organizations formed to promote their respectiveinterests, and the relations between those organizations, at all levels.industrialrelationsalso includes the processes through which these relationships are expressed(such as, collective bargaining, workers’ participation in decision-making, andgrievance and dispute settlement), and the management of conflict betweenemployers, workers and trade unions, when it arises.
Definition:-
i. Industrial Relation is that part of management which is concerned with themanpower of the enterprise – whether machine operator, skilled worker or manager.BETHEL, SMITH & GROUPii. Industrial Relation is a relation between employer and employees, employees andemployees and employees and trade unions. - Industrial dispute Act 1947iii. While moving from jungle of the definitions, here, Industrial Relation is viewed asthe “process by which people and their organizations interact at the place of work toestablish the terms and conditions of employment.” The Industrial Relation relations also called as labor - management, employee-employers relations.
A few notable features pertaining to Industrial Relations are as under:
1. Industrial Relation do not emerge in vacuum they are born of employmentrelationship in an industrial setting. Without the existence of the two parties, i.e.labor and management, this relationship cannot exist. It is the industry, whichprovides the environment for industrial relations.2. Industrial Relation are characterized by both conflict and co-operations. This is thebasis of adverse relationship. So the focus of Industrial Relations in on the study of the attitudes, relationships, practices and procedure developed by the contendingparties to resolve or at least minimize conflicts.
 
3. As the labor and management do not operate in isolations but are parts of largesystem, so the study of Industrial Relation also includes vital environment issues liketechnology of the workplace, country’s socio-economic and political environment,nation’s labor policy, attitude of trade unions workers and employers.4. Industrial Relation also involve the study of conditions conductive to the labor,managements co-operations as well as the practices and procedures required to elicitthe desired co-operation from both the parties.5. Industrial Relations also study the laws, rules regulations agreements, awards of courts, customs and traditions, as well as policy framework laid down by thegovernments for eliciting co-operations between labor and management. Besidesthis, it makes an in-depth analysis of the interference patterns of the executive and judiciary in the regulations of labor–managements relations.
Industrial Relation System
An industrial relations system consists of the whole gamut of relationships betweenemployees and employees and employers which are managed by the means of conflict and cooperation.A sound industrial relations system is one in which relationships betweenmanagement and employees (and their representatives) on the one hand, andbetween them and the State on the other, are more harmonious and cooperativethan conflictual and creates an environment conducive to economic efficiencyand the motivation, productivity and development of the employee andgenerates employee loyalty and mutual trust.
Actors in the IR system:
Three main parties are directly involved in industrial relations:
Employers
: Employers possess certain rights vis-à-vis labors. They have theright to hire and fire them. Management can also affect workers’ interests byexercising their right to relocate, close or merge the factory or to introducetechnological changes
.Employees
:
 
Workers seek to improve the terms and conditions of theiremployment. They exchange views with management and voice their grievances.They also want to share decision making powers of management. Workersgenerally unite to form unions against the
 
management and get support fromthese
 
unions.
Government:
 
The central and state government influences and regulates industrialrelations through laws, rules, agreements, awards of court ad the like. It alsoincludes third parties and labor and tribunal courts.
 
Objectives of Industrial Relation
A. To safeguard the interest of labor and management by securing the highest levelof mutual understanding and good-will among all those sections in the industrywhich participate in the process of production.B. To avoid industrial conflict or strife and develop harmonious relations, which arean essential factor in the productivity of workers and the industrial progress of acountry.C. To raise productivity to a higher level in an era of full employment by lesseningthe tendency to high turnover and frequency absenteeism.D. To establish and nurse the growth of an Industrial Democracy based on laborpartnership in the sharing of profits and of managerial decisions, so that banindividuals personality may grow its full stature for the benefit of the industry and of the country as well.E. To eliminate, as far as is possible and practicable, strikes, lockouts and gheraos byproviding reasonable wages, improved living and working conditions, said fringebenefits.F. To establish government control of such plants and units as are running at a lossor in which productions has to be regulated in the public interest.G. Improvements in the economic conditions of workers in the existing state of industrial managements and political government.H. Control exercised by the state over industrial undertaking with a view toregulating production and promoting harmonious industrial relations.I. Socializations or rationalization of industries by making he state itself a majoremployerJ. Vesting of a proprietary interest of the workers in the industries in which they areemployed.
IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS:
The healthy industrial relations are key to the progress. Their significance may bediscussed as under –

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