3. As the labor and management do not operate in isolations but are parts of largesystem, so the study of Industrial Relation also includes vital environment issues liketechnology of the workplace, country’s socio-economic and political environment,nation’s labor policy, attitude of trade unions workers and employers.4. Industrial Relation also involve the study of conditions conductive to the labor,managements co-operations as well as the practices and procedures required to elicitthe desired co-operation from both the parties.5. Industrial Relations also study the laws, rules regulations agreements, awards of courts, customs and traditions, as well as policy framework laid down by thegovernments for eliciting co-operations between labor and management. Besidesthis, it makes an in-depth analysis of the interference patterns of the executive and judiciary in the regulations of labor–managements relations.
Industrial Relation System
An industrial relations system consists of the whole gamut of relationships betweenemployees and employees and employers which are managed by the means of conflict and cooperation.A sound industrial relations system is one in which relationships betweenmanagement and employees (and their representatives) on the one hand, andbetween them and the State on the other, are more harmonious and cooperativethan conflictual and creates an environment conducive to economic efficiencyand the motivation, productivity and development of the employee andgenerates employee loyalty and mutual trust.
Actors in the IR system:
Three main parties are directly involved in industrial relations:
: Employers possess certain rights vis-à-vis labors. They have theright to hire and fire them. Management can also affect workers’ interests byexercising their right to relocate, close or merge the factory or to introducetechnological changes
Workers seek to improve the terms and conditions of theiremployment. They exchange views with management and voice their grievances.They also want to share decision making powers of management. Workersgenerally unite to form unions against the
management and get support fromthese
The central and state government influences and regulates industrialrelations through laws, rules, agreements, awards of court ad the like. It alsoincludes third parties and labor and tribunal courts.