\u201c Above t he Line\u201d is t he t erm commonly used for advert ising for which a
payment is made and for which commission is paid t o t he advert ising
agency. Met hods of above t he line advert ising include t elevision and
Added value refers t o t he increase in wort h of a product or service as a result of a part icular act ivit y. In t he cont ext of market ing, t he added value is provided by feat ures and benefit s over and above t hose
A deliberat e at t empt by a business or brand t o associat e it self wit h an
event (oft en a sport ing event ) in order t o gain some of t he benefit s
associat ed wit h being an official sponsor wit hout incurring t he cost s of
sponsorship. For example by advert ising during t elevision coverage of
t he event .
Product / Market mat rix model links market ing st rat egy wit h t he general st rat egic direct ion of a business. It maps four pot ent ial product -market strategies - e.g. market penetration, product development, market
Benefit segment at ion relat es t o t he process of dividing a market based on t he specific benefit s consumers seek from a product . For example, some car buyers want safet y and securit y from t heir car, while ot hers
A means of analysing and cat egorizing t he performance of business unit s in large diversified firms by reference t o market share and growt h rat es. It was developed by t he Bost on Consult ancy Group (BCG)
A brand is t he specific t ype of t he product form. A brand \u2013 represent ed by a brand name, symbol, design, logo, packaging \u2013 is t he ident it y of a part icular product f orm t hat cust omers recognise as being dif f erent
Brand equit y refers t o t he value of a brand. Brand equit y is based on
t he ext ent t o which t he brand has high brand loyalt y, name awareness,
perceived qualit y and st rong product associat ions. Brand equit y also
includes ot her \u201c int angible\u201d asset s such as pat ent s, t rademarks and
Brand ext ension refers t o t he use of a successful brand name t o launch a new or modified product in a new market . Virgin is perhaps t he best example of how brand ext ension can be applied int o quit e diverse and distinct markets.
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