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Option D.4 - The Hardy-Weinberg Principle

Option D.4 - The Hardy-Weinberg Principle

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Published by IB Screwed
Notes for IB Biology option D - Evolution.
Including Hardy-Weinberg equation, allele, genotype and phenotype frequencies, and assumptions made when the Hardy-Weinberg equation is used.
Notes for IB Biology option D - Evolution.
Including Hardy-Weinberg equation, allele, genotype and phenotype frequencies, and assumptions made when the Hardy-Weinberg equation is used.

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Published by: IB Screwed on Aug 17, 2014
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10/02/2014

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Option D.4
 –
 The Hardy-Weinberg Principle
D.4.1
 –
 Explain how the Hardy-Weinberg equation is derived
Evolution involves changes in allele frequency. The Hardy-Weinberg equation is often used for doing calculations of allele frequency. The Hardy-Weinberg equation is a formula that gives proportions of the diploid genotypes formed by random union of haploid gametes, or random mating between diploids. If there are two alleles of a gene in a population, the frequency of the alleles is represented by
 p
 and
q
. The total frequency of the alleles is 1:
+=
 
When there is random mating, the chance of inheriting two copies of the first allele is
 p
 x
 p
. The chance of inheriting two copies of the second allele
q
 x
q
. Thus, the expected frequency of the homozygous genotypes is
 p
2
 and
q
2
, while the heterozygous genotype is 2
 pq
. The sum of all the frequencies is 1.
++ 
=
 
 
D.4.2
 –
 Calculate allele, genotype and phenotype frequencies for two alleles of a gene, using the Hardy-Weinberg equation
Allele Frequencies The gene for tasting phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) has two alleles: ability to taste is dominant (T) and no tasting is the recessive (t). In a survey of 3200 people, 922 could not taste PTC: a frequency of 0.288. The genotype homozygous recessive (t t) is called
q
. Thus,
q
2
 = 0.288
q
 = 0.537
 p
 = T allele, so p = (1
 –
 
q
) = 0.463 Genotype Frequencies Cystic fibrosis is caused by recessive alleles of a chloride channel gene. A screening of 27000 people who did not have cystic fibrosis tested for carriers of the recessive gene. The frequency of the normal allele =
 p
 = 0.9776 Frequency of the cystic fibrosis allele =
q
 = 0.0224 When the tested people have children, the chance of the child having cystic fibrosis:
q
2
 = (0.0224)
2
 = 0.000502 So, one child in 1900 would have cystic fibrosis. Meanwhile, the chance of a child being a carrier is: 2
 pq
 = 2(0.9776 x 0.0224) = 0.0438 So, one child in 23 would be a carrier.

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