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Nutrition

Nutrition

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Published by: amydhea on Aug 18, 2014
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Nutrition
The choice of the appropriate tool for measuring dietary intake depends upon the purpose of the study. Diet is usually described in terms of its nutrient content. Typical food patterns, eating habits, and the use of specific foods and groups of foods can also describe diet.Many different methods can be used for assessing dietary intake; three of the most common are food frequency questionnaires, food records and twenty-four hour diet recalls.
Food Frequency Questionnaires
Food Records
Dietary RecallsFood Frequency Questionnaires
Description A ood requency !uestionnaire "!# is a limited checklist of foods and be$erages with a frequency response section for sub%ects to report how often each items was consumed o$er a specified periods of time. &emi-quantitati$e ! collect portion si'e information as standardi'ed portions or as a choice of portion si'es. (ortion si'e information is not collected in non-quantitati$e !s. )alculations for nutrient intake can be estimated $ia computeri'ed software programs that multiply the reported frequency of each food by the amount of nutrient in a ser$ing of that food.(ros "&trengths#
*epresentati$e of +usual intake
(referable method of measuring intake for nutrients with $ery high day-to-day $ariability
!uestionnaire processing is significantly less epensi$e than food records or dietrecalls
)an be easy for literate sub%ects to complete as a self-administered form
&uitable for $ery large studies
Designed to rank indi$iduals according to intake)ons "eaknesses#
*etrospecti$e method that relies upon the respondent/s memory
)ost may increase dramatically for questionnaires must be inter$iewer-administered, e.g., low literacy populations
 
0ess sensiti$e to measures of absolute intake for specific nutrients
 Arbitrary groupings of foods may not correspond to perception of respondent
1clusion of foods popular to ethnic minority groups that are significant contributors of nutrients
(ossible response distortion of +healthy foods "e.g., fruits, $egetables#1amples of ood requency !uestionnaires
2ar$ard !3 de$eloped by alter illett, M.D. and his colleagues at 2ar$ard 4ni$ersity. (ortion si'e information is included as a part of the food item description rather than a separate listing.
5lock !3 a semi-quantitati$e ! originally de$eloped at the 6ational )ancer 7nstitute under the direction of 8ladys 5lock, (hD.
Diet 2istory !uestionnaire "D2!#3 a semi-quantitati$e ! which uses an embedded question approach directed by ran Thompson and Amy &ubar at the 6ational )ancer 7nstitute.ood requency )itations5lock 8, Thompson 1, 2artman AM, 0arkin A, 8uire 913 )omparison of two dietary questionnaires $alidated against multiple dietary records collected during a :-year period.  Am Diet Assoc <=3 >?>-><@, :<<=.5lock 8, oods M, (otosky A, )lifford )3 alidation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire using multiple diet records.  )lin 1pidemiol B@3 :@=C-:@@,:<<E.5lock 8, (atterson 5, &ubar A3 ruit, $egetables, and cancer pre$ention3 A re$iew of theepidemiologic e$idence. 6utr )ancer :?3 :-=<, :<<=.ield A1, 5yers T, 2unter D, 0aird 6M, Manson 1, illiamson D, illett ), )oldit' 8A3 eight cycling, weight gain, and risk of hypertension in women. Am  1pidemiol :E3 C@-C<, :<<<.Fh 9, 2u 5, )ho 1, *erode 9M, &tampfer M, Manson 1, 0iu &, illett )3 )arbohydrate intake, glycemic inde, glycemic load, and dietary fiber in relation to risk of stroke in women. Am  1pidemiol :>:3 :>:-:><, =EE.&ubar A, Thompson 1, 9ipnis , Midthune D, 2urwit' (, Mc6utt &, Mc7ntosh A, *osenfeld &3 )omparati$e alidation of the 5lock, illett, and 6ational )ancer 7nstituteood requency !uestionnaires3 The 1ating at AmericaGs Table &tudy. Am  1pidemiol
 
:B3 :E?<-:E<<, =EE:.Thompson 1, &ubar A, 5rown )), &mith A, &harbaugh )F, obe 5, Mittl 5, 8ibsonT, Hiegler *83 )ogniti$e research enhances accuracy of food frequency questionnaire
 
reports3 results of an eperimental $alidation study.  Am Diet Assoc
 
:E=3 =:=-==, =EE=.illett ), &tampfer M, 4nderwood 5A, &pei'er 1, *osner 5, 2ennekens )23 alidation of a dietary questionnaire with plasma carotenoid and alpha-tocopherol le$els. Am  )lin 6utr @?3 >@:->@<, :<?@.ood requency ebsites
The current source of the 5lock ! is through 6utrition!uest. The company pro$ides se$eral types of diet questionnaires and screeners for both children andadults. 7n addition to diet questionnaires, 6utrition!uest also supplies physical acti$ity questionnaires and 5eha$ior )hange &ystems for organi'ations. or more information, $isit3 http3IIwww.nutritionquest.comIinde.htm
Dr. alter illett and his team at the 2ar$ard &chool of (ublic 2ealth ha$e de$eloped se$eral $ersions of a ! used in The 6urses 2ealth &tudy. To $iew forms of the questionnaire, $isit3http3IIwww.channing.har$ard.eduInhsIquestionnairesIinde.shtml
!uestionnaires, and other instruments de$eloped by the *isk actor Monitoring J Methods 5ranch of 6)7, are used by many researchers. To $iew documentation, software and other supporting material, $isit3http3IIriskfactor.cancer.go$ItoolsIinstruments
Food Records
 Description A food record is a detailed description of the types and amounts of food, be$erage andIor supplements documented o$er a prescribed period, usually @ to C days. ood records are also known as +ood Diaries because of the specially designed booklets that sub%ects use to enter the details of the food and be$erages that they consume. 7nformation on food preparation, recipes, brand names and amounts consumed included specific portion si'es is included. 7n addition, the name of the meal, the time of day and eact location may be required depending upon the nature of the study.&ub%ects may be asked to weigh and measure foods and should be trained to record intake to the le$el of detail needed to describe the diet and nutrients in question. At the end of the recording period, a trained inter$iewer meets with the respondent to clarify food details and to re$iew the foods and portions documented. (ros "&trengths#
Fpen ended design
1asy to quantify amounts

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